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By John G. Webster (Editor)

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However, once the prototype is operational, there is a tendency for people, including the creators of the prototype, to begin to think that the prototype is actually very close to what the final product or system should be like. In such situations, it is common to hear someone say, “Maybe with just a few small changes here and there . ” Prototypes can be very important. However, one must keep their purpose in mind and avoid “rabid” prototyping! Also, care must be taken to avoid premature ego investments in prototypes.

From a measurement point of view, the focus is now on validity, acceptability, and viability. It is also at this point that one ensures that implementation conditions are consistent with the assumptions underlying the design basis of the product or system. The Role of Technology. It is important to note the role of technology in the human-centered design process. As depicted in Fig. 2, technology is pursued in parallel with the four phases of the design process. In fact, technology feasibility, development, and refinement usually consume the lion’s share of the resources in a product or system design effort.

To the extent that designers are former stakeholders, this approach has some merit. However, it is inherently limited from capturing the abilities, attitudes, and aspirations of current or potential stakeholders, as well as the current or potential impact of their organizations. Elusive Stakeholders. It is often argued, particularly for advanced technology efforts, that the eventual stakeholders for the product or system of interest do not yet exist—there are no incumbent stakeholders. ” Even, for example, when designing the initial spacecraft, much was drawn from previous experiences in aircraft and submarines.

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