Download A Companion to the History of the Middle East by Youssef M. Choueiri PDF

By Youssef M. Choueiri

Справочник «История Ближнего Востока» предлагает свежий взгляд на многогранную и многослойную историю этого региона, к которому отнесены Иран, Турция, Израиль и Арабский мир.
В его составе – 26 очерков международного коллектива ученых, акцентированных, в основном, на новом и новейшем периоде. В очерках уделено внимание религиозной, социальной, культурной, экономической, политической и военной истории. Затронуты также текущие проблемы, такие как - нефтяной вопрос , урбанизация, роль женщин и права человека.Образцы сканов:

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At the same time, the religious scholars (the œ ulama ¯š ) who were the transmitters and interpreters of the knowledge and learning that came to be committed to writing, began to be recognized and respected in a way that had been denied them in the period of the Umayyad caliphs. They became the focus of Muslim religious life. Some of them were granted salaried positions by the caliphs, for instance as religious judges (qa ¯d is), while others preferred to keep their independence and refused to serve the _ state.

Two years before his death he was able to lead a band of his followers to Mecca and occupy the town without much bloodshed. Its sanctuary, the Kaœ ba, was cleansed of idolatry and again dedicated to the worship of the one true God (Alla¯h) for which Abraham had established it. God’s revelations came to Muhammad on many occasions throughout his proph_ ¯l), brought the very words of God himself. In etic career. The angel Gabriel (Jibrı addition, God guided the Prophet’s own words and behaviour, which his companions remembered and transmitted to later generations.

Urging that Islam is more than just a religion, he argued that it was the outcome of the religious, political, social and economic conditions that developed in the Middle East following the conquests. The conquests, according to Becker and others, were not motivated by religion but by economic needs and desires. They established the political dominance of what must have been a relatively small number of Arab warriors over a larger and diverse non-Arab (and non-Muslim) population. Many of those conquered peoples were heirs to cultures and religious traditions of some antiquity, and it was the interaction between them and their military conquerors that led – eventually – to the formation of a new and distinctive Islamic religion and culture embracing both the Arabs and the subject peoples.

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