By Youssef M. Choueiri
Справочник «История Ближнего Востока» предлагает свежий взгляд на многогранную и многослойную историю этого региона, к которому отнесены Иран, Турция, Израиль и Арабский мир.
В его составе – 26 очерков международного коллектива ученых, акцентированных, в основном, на новом и новейшем периоде. В очерках уделено внимание религиозной, социальной, культурной, экономической, политической и военной истории. Затронуты также текущие проблемы, такие как - нефтяной вопрос , урбанизация, роль женщин и права человека.Образцы сканов:
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This can be a debatable research of the origins of Islamic civilisation, first released in 1977. by means of analyzing non-Muslim resources, the authors indicate the intimate hyperlink among the Jewish faith and the earliest different types of Islam. As a significant, scholarly try and open up a brand new, exploratory direction of Islamic background, the publication has already engendered a lot debate.
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The courses of the Hakluyt Society (founded in 1846) made to be had edited (and occasionally translated) early debts of exploration. the 1st sequence, which ran from 1847 to 1899, includes a hundred books containing released or formerly unpublished works by means of authors from Christopher Columbus to Sir Francis Drake, and protecting voyages to the recent international, to China and Japan, to Russia and to Africa and India.
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Extra info for A Companion to the History of the Middle East
At the same time, the religious scholars (the ulama ¯ ) who were the transmitters and interpreters of the knowledge and learning that came to be committed to writing, began to be recognized and respected in a way that had been denied them in the period of the Umayyad caliphs. They became the focus of Muslim religious life. Some of them were granted salaried positions by the caliphs, for instance as religious judges (qa ¯d is), while others preferred to keep their independence and refused to serve the _ state.
Two years before his death he was able to lead a band of his followers to Mecca and occupy the town without much bloodshed. Its sanctuary, the Ka ba, was cleansed of idolatry and again dedicated to the worship of the one true God (Alla¯h) for which Abraham had established it. God’s revelations came to Muhammad on many occasions throughout his proph_ ¯l), brought the very words of God himself. In etic career. The angel Gabriel (Jibrı addition, God guided the Prophet’s own words and behaviour, which his companions remembered and transmitted to later generations.
Urging that Islam is more than just a religion, he argued that it was the outcome of the religious, political, social and economic conditions that developed in the Middle East following the conquests. The conquests, according to Becker and others, were not motivated by religion but by economic needs and desires. They established the political dominance of what must have been a relatively small number of Arab warriors over a larger and diverse non-Arab (and non-Muslim) population. Many of those conquered peoples were heirs to cultures and religious traditions of some antiquity, and it was the interaction between them and their military conquerors that led – eventually – to the formation of a new and distinctive Islamic religion and culture embracing both the Arabs and the subject peoples.