Download A comprehensive guide to the hazardous properties of by Pradyot Patnaik PDF

By Pradyot Patnaik

The definitive advisor to the harmful houses of chemical compounds

Correlating chemical constitution with toxicity to people and the surroundings, and the chemical constitution of compounds to their harmful homes, A complete advisor to the dangerous homes of chemical compounds, 3rd Edition permits clients to evaluate the toxicity of a substance even if no experimental information exists. therefore, it bridges the space among harmful fabrics and chemistry. generally up to date and improved, this reference:

  • Examines organics, metals and inorganics, commercial solvents, universal gases, particulates, explosives, and radioactive components, protecting every little thing from toxicity and carcinogenicity to flammability and explosive reactivity to dealing with and disposal practices
  • Arranges unsafe chemical compounds in response to their chemical buildings and sensible teams for simple reference
  • Includes up-to-date info at the poisonous, flammable, and explosive houses of chemical substances
  • Covers extra metals within the chapters on poisonous and reactive metals
  • Updates the brink publicity limits within the office air for a couple of substances
  • Features the most recent info on business solvents and poisonous and flammable gases
  • Includes a variety of tables, formulation, and a thesaurus for fast reference

since it presents details that allows people with a chemistry heritage to accomplish exams with out earlier facts, this finished reference appeals to chemists, chemical engineers, toxicologists, and forensic scientists, in addition to business hygienists, occupational physicians, Hazmat pros, and others in similar fields.

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Extra resources for A comprehensive guide to the hazardous properties of chemical substances

Sample text

This process, also known as biotransformation, occurs in the organs and tissues. The most important site is the liver. Other sites of such reactions are the lungs, stomach, intestine, kidneys, and skin. The detoxication process involves the conversion of the toxicants to their metabolites, which in many cases are less toxic than the parent compounds. Detoxication or biotransformation of toxicants involves two types of reactions: (1) degradation, and (2) addition or conjugation reactions. Either or both types of reactions can take place.

The toxicity of a substance is related to its chemical properties. Thus, the biological activity of a compound may be assessed or predicted from its molecular structure. This is known as the structure –activity relationship (SAR). There are many in-depth studies on this subject in the technical literature. Computers are used to perform complex SAR calculations. The toxicity of many common substances or classes of compounds is as follows. Common gases such as hydrogen, nitrogen, helium, neon, argon nitrous oxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, ethylene, and acetylene are nontoxic but simple asphyxiants.

Many chemicals are known to cause liver necrosis, an acute injury that involves the rupture of the plasma membrane and cell death (death of hepatocytes). Among the common toxicants that manifest such effects are the halogenated hydrocarbons, such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrabromide and bromobenzene. Other hepatotoxicants include acetaminophen, phosphorus, beryllium, tannic acid, and allyl alcohol. Most of these substances produce reactive metabolites that covalently bind with unsaturated lipids and proteins present at high concentrations in subcellular membranes, inducing lipid peroxidation.

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