By Alan Cruse
This easy-to-use consultant illuminates key techniques and phrases in semantics and pragmatics and the research of which means because it is conveyed via language.
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Additional resources for A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics (Glossaries in Linguistics)
Displacement This is one of the key features distinguishing human language from, for instance, animal communication. It is the ability to speak about things that are not present (There are no horses here) and about times and places other than the ‘here and now’ (I met her last summer in New York), as well as about hypothetical entities and events. ) distributive plural see under plural domain (cognitive) Any coherent body of conceptual content which serves as an essential background for, or is presupposed by, some individual concept or conceptual process.
48 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS dimensions of (lexical) meaning The semantic properties of a word can be grouped under three main headings: descriptive meaning, expressive meaning, and evocative meaning. ) 1. The descriptive meaning of a word is that part of its meaning which constrains what it can be used to refer to, and which determines the truth values of statements which contain it. Descriptive meaning therefore includes propositional meaning, but it can be extended to include characteristic or prototypical features, such as the barking of dogs, rather than simply logically necessary features, such as the fact that a dog is an animal.
Closed set items These are grammatical elements, either affixes or free words, which have three main characteristics: 1. In a grammatical sentence the possibilities of omitting or substituting them without affecting the grammaticality of the sentence are very limited or non-existent. 2. They belong to substitution sets whose membership is effectively fixed, with change occurring only over a long time-scale (typically longer than the lifetime of a single speaker). 26 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS 3.