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By Noel Weeks

The incidence of treaties during the historical close to East has been investigated on a few events, in most cases which will get to the bottom of definite questions coming up within the biblical box. because of that attention, the lifestyles of an identical establishment in a few diversified cultures has no longer been handled as an issue in itself. in most cases the life of treaties during the zone has been taken without any consideration, or an easy borrowing version has been used to give an explanation for how comparable kinds got here for use in several cultures. Why varieties have been related around the sector has no longer been probed. This paintings investigates treaty occurrences in numerous cultures and reveals that the types used correlate with methods of holding political regulate either internally and over vassals. similar options are projected in legitimate bills of background. hence you will approximately distinguish threats according to strength from persuasion in keeping with benevolence and ancient precedent, although quite a few mixtures of those take place. there's a most likely extra connection of the skill selected to the measure of centralisation of strength in the society. Underlying the neighborhood traditions is a standard culture which needs to be dated to the pre-literate interval. Biblical covenants healthy inside this development. The cultures taken care of are Mesopotamia, the Hittites, Egypt, Syrian centres and Israel.

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Extra resources for Admonition and Curse: The Ancient Near Eastern Treaty Covenant Form as a Problem in Inter-Cultural Relationships

Sample text

The extant stipulations concern promises not to convey intelligence on military affairs of Eshnunna to anybody else, for example, after a description of military measures by Eshnanna. 60 Enough is preserved to show that curses were present and that they conform to the pattern of giving each deity a particular malediction to inflict. Summary of Old Babylonian and Old Assyrian Evidence By comparison with what we know of later treaties, one thing seems conspicuous by its absence: a treaty text which is the text of both parties to the treaty.

There is a separate god list following this section. These gods are mainly Assyrian but some Syrian deities do appear towards the end of the list. An interesting sidelight on the paucity of our Mesopotamian evidence for treaties is the fact that these poor copies represent the first actual text we have of Mesopotamian treaties since the Old Assyrian period. As we shall see, the Hittite evidence is much fuller. In the treaty of Ashur-narari V and Mati'ilu the treaty itself is referred to as an adu.

Canfora, M. Liverani and C. Zaccagnini (eds), / trattati nel mondo antico. Forma ideologia furzione (Rome: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 1990), pp. 108-11. 109. Brinkman gives reasons for considering that the Babylonian king was the stronger: 'Political Covenants, Treaties, and Loyalty Oaths in Babylonia and between Babylonia and Assyria', pp. 96-7. Mesopotamia 39 The treaty between Ashur-narari V of Assyria and Mati'ilu of Bit-Agusi (Arpad in Syria)110 is better preserved. The beginning is missing and the extant text begins with mention of symbolized curses.

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