By Martin Feldstein
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Extra info for American economic policy in the 1980s
The principal forms of support provided include training; the provision of trade union experts, who may or may not attend EWC meetings; a means to develop systems of information exchange, communication, and networking; and mechanisms to articulate activities conducted at local, national, and transnational levels. There is certainly no single position on these issues to which all trade union organisations subscribe. In particular, trade unionists operating in dual systems of industrial relations, within which collective bargaining is separated from many workplace activities, tend to emphasise different approaches to the articulation of union activities than trade unionists located within single-channel systems of representation.
Details on these core provisions are included in Chapter 3. In addition to the core provisions, founding agreements tended to specify whether an EWC was to act as an employee-only institution, following the German model, or as a joint management-employee institution, following French practice; whether representatives from countries other than those signatory to the Directive were to attend EWC meetings and, if so, in what capacity (full members or observers); whether trade union organisations were to undertake a role within the EWC; and whether the minutes or some other record of the EWC meeting was disseminated throughout the company.
Each of these stages can usefully be regarded as a ‘type’ of EWC. Furthermore, there is something of a consensus on the stages through which this development might progress in developing a European identity that transcends the national interests of individual representatives. Lecher et al. (1999), for example, refer to four types of EWC, each of which corresponds to a particular stage of development: symbolic, service providers, project-oriented, and participatory, representing a progression from information committee to a social actor; whereas Marginson (2000), borrowing from Levinson (1972), identifies polycentric, ethnocentric, geocentric EWCs in a similar trajectory towards a European identity.