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Extra resources for An Introduction to the Logic of the Sciences
Has a temperature ofx0 C'. The reasons for this replacement are complex and will become apparent as the discussion proceeds. Static anatomical descriptions of systems require no special linguistic machinery apart from that already deployed in ordinary language, but the dynamic description required to express change of state does not have so direct a logic. A dynamic description could be built up out of static descriptions in the following way: the system is described at some time t 1 and again at some time t 2 .
The logical requirements are the same for the general as for the particular linear explanation. An antecedent, preferably the minimum relevant set of conditions for the class of happenings, should be given while the generalizations linking explanatory antecedent and class of happenings are understood. They are implicit in the selection of such and such conditions as the set necessary and sufficient to bring about happenings of the kind to be explained. The requirement that explanation and happening should be ofthe same logical status is satisfied by our giving as the explanation a class of antecedent happenings.
Let x,y, . be algebraic variables representing observables, and a, b . . be numbers representing the results of measurements on the observables represented by x,y, ... respectively. Then ifF( ... ) is an algebraic function representing the processfwhich the system is undergoing, F(a, b, .. ) represents a particular state of the system, a static description true at some particular time. The same function, but with variables 44 The Logic of the Sciences instead of definite numbers F(x,y, . ) represents the change of state of the system, the process J, a dynamic description of the history of the system.