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By Mason T.J., Lorimer J.P.

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Extra resources for Applied Sonochemistry. Uses of Power Ultrasoud in Chemistry and Processing

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33 34 2 General Principles I ˆ I0 exp…À2ad† …2:14† where a is the absorption (attenuation) coefficient. This attenuation may arise as a result of reflection, refraction, diffraction or scattering of the wave or it may be the result of converting some of the mechanical (kinetic) energy of the wave into heat. For chemical applications, which usually take place in the gaseous or liquid phase, it is the latter process which is the most important. As the molecules of the medium vibrate under the action of the sound wave, they experience viscous interactions which degrade the acoustic energy into heat, and it is the absorption of this degraded acoustic energy by the medium which gives rise to the small observed bulk heating effect during the applications of high power ultrasound.

G. 26 2 General Principles Fig. 1. Wave particle movement; (a) longitudinal waves; (b) transverse waves. cork or wood) move up and down when the wave reaches them but they do not move forward in the direction of the wave. In other words, if the motion of particles was considered to be equivalent to the motion of the cork or wood, the particles would move up and down in a direction perpendicular to the horizontal movement of the wave. A good example of a longitudinal wave can be seen when a coiled spring, anchored at one end, is given a sharp push from the other end.

Boucher, US Patent 4 211 744 (1980). 12. T. Quartly-Watson, The importance of power ultrasound in cleaning and disinfection in the poultry industry ± a case study, Ultrasound in Food Processing, M. J. ), Blackie Academic and Professional, 1998, ISBN 0-7514-0429-2. 13. M. Rule, The Mary Rose, Conway Maritime Press, 1982. 17. V. Abramov, High-Intensity Ultrasound: Theory and Industrial Applications, Gordon and Breach, London, 1998. 18. F. Rawson, Phys. , 1987, 38, 255. 19. F. W. J. ), Thomson Science, London, 1997, 193.

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