By A. F. L. Beeston, T. M. Johnstone, R. B. Serjeant, G. R. Smith
Initially released in 1983, The Cambridge heritage of Arabic Literature used to be the 1st basic survey of the sphere to were released in English for over fifty years and the 1st tried in such element in a multi-volume shape. The volumes of the historical past offer a useful resource of reference and figuring out of the highbrow, literary and non secular history of the Arabic-speaking and Islamic international. This quantity starts its assurance with the oral verse of the 6th century advert, and ends with the autumn of the Umayyad dynasty centuries later. inside of this era fall significant occasions: the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad, the founding of the Islamic faith, the nice Arab Islamic conquests of territories open air the Arabian Peninsula, and their assembly, as overlords, with the Byzantine and Sasanian global. members to this quantity talk about an array of issues together with the affects of Greeks, Persians and Syrians on early Arabic literature.
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Additional info for Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period (The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature)
The earliest writing materials were papyrus, skins, potsherds (ostraka) even occasionally the shoulderblades of animals. These surfaces are not very favourable to the development of a calligraphic style, and early examples give an impression of roughness and irregularity. Vellum was extremely expensive and used only for copying the Qur'an; but its surface did permit the evolution of a calligraphic style, commonly referred to as "Kufic", though it is now believed not to have any special connection with Kufa, but more probably to have originated in Medina.
In common usage, this impossibly cumbrous form is avoided by reducing it to an arbitrarily selected choice of items, which constitute the "conventional " name. The arbitrariness of the choice unfortunately gives rise to frequent uncertainties, and hence to variations in the form under which the person is quoted. Mostly, however, the choice has fallen on one of the terminal nisbah or familial items. When further distinctiveness is needed, this is normally achieved by prefixing the laqab or the kunyah: thus, Abu Bakr Muhammad b.
Modern printing typefaces owe their ultimate inspiration to this medieval book hand, though few of them retain its aesthetic attraction. Two other developments stem from the naskh hand. Around the beginning of the eighth/fourteenth century, its tendency to flowing curves was carried even further by the style called shikastah\ this, however, never gained popularity outside Iran and India. In the Arabic-speaking lands, informal writing developed gradually along lines which produced the modern ruq'ah script, nowadays the normal handwriting style.