By Zeynep Yürekli
According to an intensive exam of constructions, inscriptions, archival records and hagiographies, this e-book uncovers the political importance of Bektashi shrines within the Ottoman imperial age. It therefore presents a clean and entire account of the formative means of the Bektashi order, which began as a community of social teams that took factor with Ottoman imperial guidelines within the past due 15th century, was once counseled imperially as a part of Bayezid II's (r. 1481-1512) delicate energy coverage, and saved less than money by way of imperial experts because the Ottoman method of the Safavid clash hardened through the remainder of the 16th century. This e-book demonstrates that it was once a mixture of 2 collective actions that validated the first parameters of Bektashi tradition from the overdue 15th century onwards. One used to be the writing of Bektashi hagiographies; they associated hitherto unique social teams (such as wandering dervishes and warriors) with one another during the lives of old figures who have been their id markers (such because the saint Hac Bektas and the martyr Seyyid Gazi), whereas incorporating them into Ottoman heritage in inventive methods. the opposite one used to be the architectural remodelling of the saints' shrines. by way of type, imagery and content material, this interrelated literary and architectural output unearths a classy technique of negotiation with the imperial order and its cultural paradigms. tested in additional element within the e-book are the shrines of Seyyid Gazi and Hac Bektas and linked legends and hagiographies. notwithstanding verified as self sufficient associations in medieval Anatolia, they have been joined within the rising Bektashi community less than the Ottomans, grew to become its critical centres and underwent radical architectural transformation, customarily below the patronage of raider commanders established within the Balkans. They therefore got here to occupy an middleman socio-political area among the Ottoman empire and its contestants within the 16th century.
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Extra resources for Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire: The Politics of Bektashi Shrines in the Classical Age
253–330), Hillenbrand points out the social functions of shrines (pp. 260–68). Another exception is the treatment of the Timurid shrine of Ahmed Yesevi in Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom, The Art and Architecture of Islam 1250–1800 (New Haven and London, 1995), pp. 41–4. 38 Lisa Golombek, ‘The Cult of Saints and Shrine Architecture in the Fourteenth Century’, in Dickran K. ), Near Eastern Numismatics, Iconography, Epigraphy, and History: Studies in Honor of George C. Miles (Beirut, 1974), pp.
This created an Ottoman counterweight to the shrines of Seyyid Gazi and Hacı Bektaş. Not surprisingly, the architectural patronage of Bektashi shrines, which represented the unorthodox subjects of the empire, did not come from the ruling elite in the capital. It was the patronage of raider commanders from the distant frontiers that transformed the two shrines examined here. However different they might appear from each other in terms of architectural style, their roughly simultaneous transformation in the imperial age was no coincidence.
121–9; Ahmet T. Karamustafa, God’s Unruly Friends, pp. 83–4. 73 Köprülüzade, ‘Bektāşiliğin͂ Menşeʾleri’; Köprülüzade, Influence du chamanisme; Mélikoff, ‘Recherches sur les composantes’; Mélikoff, ‘L’Islam hétérodoxe’; Mélikoff, Hadji Bektach. 74 Ahmet Yaşar Ocak, Kültür Tarihi Kaynağı Olarak Menakıbnameler: Metodolojik Bir Yaklaşım (Ankara, 1992). 76 The present book owes a great deal to this long, varied and continuing tradition of scholarship on Bektashi hagiography, and seeks to fill out the picture by adding the architectural setting.