By Nora Berend
It is a examine of the commercial, social, felony and spiritual place of 3 minorities in the medieval Christian nation of Hungary. The ebook demonstrates that the prestige of such minorities depended now not easily on Christian spiritual tenets, yet on a bigger framework--including the criminal and social process, monetary percentages, and conflicts among kings and the clergy. It additionally investigates the location "at the gate of Christendom"--the frontier with the nomad world--and the way in which this affected either Christian and non-Christian interplay and Christian ideology.
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Extra resources for At the gate of Christendom
Much of the crop was collected as taxes in kind by local troops and stored in granaries. These supplies were vital in times of crisis and constituted a great asset to career aspiring soldiers. An alliance of some kind between the military of Macarra in the north and those of H * asya to the south, appears to have existed. The latter also campaigned on several occasions in the Hama area against the Mawaˆ lıˆ. 10 He was quick to 8 Makkıˆ, Taˆ rıˆkh, from p. 343 onwards Pococke, Description, vol. 2, pp.
84 82 FO, 195/196, n. O. 195/207, n. 1, Damascus, 13 January 1844. 84 See, on this process, Lewis, Nomads 83 2. The office-households of the province Occasional lapses of order are part of the history of the Syrian interior. In Ottoman times, order was equated with the reign of justice. 1 The reign of justice was severely challenged around 1700 when disturbances were recorded over large areas. Social and political order was under severe pressure. The restoration of the Circle of Justice had become more problematic because the main traditional instrument for its maintenance, the military, seemingly failed to adhere to earlier standards and was unable to meet new military needs of an empire that was no longer expanding.
444; Oppenheim, Beduinen, vol. 1, p. 324. This claim to an honourable descent was refuted by the medieval geographer al-Qalqashandıˆ. However, the Banıˆ Khaˆ lid do consider themselves to be Quraysh, ibid. 61 Burckhardt (Notes, vol. 1, p. 64 Several tribes which were of importance around 1800 had moved to the area during approximately the previous half a century, notably the H * adıˆdiyyıˆn and the Turkıˆ, whereas one other important tribe, the Fawaˆ cira, was of recent local formation. The H * adıˆdiyyıˆn, or rather part of them, had been expulsed by the northward migration of the Fadcaˆ n from their traditional pastures in the Aleppo area.