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The conflict is often between the forces of tradition, which tend to promote the domination of religion and sacred law, and the forces of change. 35 Laicism refers more narrowly to a specific process of separating church from state. It is no accident that the Kemalists chose the term layiklik to refer to one of the major pillars of their doctrine. Had they so desired, they could have selected a vaguer term; they ~. s_~~s the "princ~f separation of reli ious and a societi~~ The Ankara government struggle fiercely to free state institutions, juridical structure, the educational system and society in general from the intluence of men of religion.

Thus, the Economic Congress convened in Izmir in 1923 to discuss the reconstruction of the Turkish economy was held under the banner of The Origins of Kemalist Ideology 33 brotherhood between the various occupational categories. 29 The plan to base all political, economic and social life on corporations had few supporters, but Gokalp's rather vague slogan, "there are no classes, there are only occupations," had been integrated into the official doctrine of the state. 30 This populist theme was presented as a response to the Marxist concept of class struggle.

46. F. Ahmad, op. , pp. 341 ff. 47. This thesis was developed by Tekin Alp in "Harbden Sulha intikal iktisadiyatl-Devlet iktisadiyatl" (From War to Peace: the State Economy), in the journal jktisadiyat Mecmuasl, 62, 64 (1917), pp. 1-3. 48. Ziya Gokalp, Turkish Nationalism and Western Civilization, trans. and ed. by Niyazi Berkes (New York: Columbia University Press, 1959), pp. 310-311. 4 Atatiirk's Quest for Modernism Osman Okyar We must view Atatiirk's quest for modernism in a historical persective, approaching the subject not from an abstract theoretical angle, but from the standpoint of a member of the Ottoman army officer corps at the beginning of the twentieth century.

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