Download Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to by John H. Seinfeld, Spyros N. Pandis PDF

By John H. Seinfeld, Spyros N. Pandis

Completely restructured and up to date with new findings and new features

the second one variation of this across the world acclaimed textual content provides the most recent advancements in atmospheric technological know-how. It remains to be the leading textual content for either a rigorous and an entire remedy of the chemistry of the ambience, masking such pivotal themes as:
* Chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere
* Formation, development, dynamics, and homes of aerosols
* Meteorology of air pollution
* shipping, diffusion, and removing of species within the atmosphere
* Formation and chemistry of clouds
* interplay of atmospheric chemistry and climate
* Radiative and climatic results of gases and particles
* formula of mathematical chemical/transport types of the atmosphere

All chapters improve effects in keeping with primary ideas, permitting the reader to construct a superior realizing of the technology underlying atmospheric strategies. one of the new fabric are 3 new chapters: Atmospheric Radiation and Photochemistry, common stream of the ambience, and international Cycles. furthermore, the chapters Stratospheric Chemistry, Tropospheric Chemistry, and natural Atmospheric Aerosols were rewritten to mirror the newest findings.

Readers acquainted with the 1st variation will find a textual content with new buildings and new gains that enormously relief studying. Many examples are trigger within the textual content to assist readers paintings in the course of the program of options. complex fabric has been moved to appendices. eventually, many new difficulties, coded through measure of trouble, were further. A ideas guide is available.

completely up to date and restructured, the second one version of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics is a perfect textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate scholars, in addition to a reference for researchers in environmental engineering, meteorology, chemistry, and the atmospheric sciences.
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Extra info for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change

Example text

Nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) are not considered in this context as reactive nitrogen compounds. Measurement of total NO, in the atmosphere provides an important measure of the total oxidized nitrogen content. Concentrations of individual NOy species relative to the total indicate the extent of interconversion among species. NOy is indeed closer to a conserved quantity than any of its constituent species (Roberts 1995). Only during the past two decades have techniques been available with sufficient sensitivity and range of detectability to measure NOx in nonurban locales (NOx concentrations below 1 ppb), and as a result the size and reliability of the database needed to define nonurban NOx concentrations are limited.

Standard Atmosphere. 6 EXPRESSING THE AMOUNT OF A SUBSTANCE IN THE ATMOSPHERE The SI unit for the amount of a substance is the mole (mol). 022 × 1023 mol -1 . Concentration is the amount (or mass) of a substance in a given volume divided by that volume. Mixing ratio in atmospheric chemistry is defined as the ratio of the amount (or mass) of the substance in a given volume to the total amount (or mass) of all constituents in that volume. In this definition for a gaseous substance the sum of all constituents includes all gaseous substances, including water vapor, but not including particulate matter or condensed phase water.

32 ATMOSPHERIC TRACE CONSTITUENTS especially in Antarctic waters; in July, the highest concentrations are in the Northern Hemisphere oceans. DMS is thought to originate from the decomposition of dimethyl sulfoniopropionate produced by marine organisms, in particular, phytoplankton (Andreae 1990). Its con­ centration in the upper layer of the ocean varies between a few nanograms of S per liter to a few micrograms of S per liter. The DMS surface seawater concentration is highly nonuniform; its average concentration is approximately 100 nanograms (ng) of S per liter.

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