By Koji Kano (auth.), Professor Hermann Dugas, Professor Dr. Franz P. Schmidtchen (eds.)
1. okay. Kano: Selectivities of utilized Chemistry 2. A. Pl}ckthun: Antibody Engineering to review Protein-Ligand Interactions and Catalysis: The Phosphorylcholine Binding Antibodies three. M.W. Hosseini: Supramolecular Catalysis of Phosphoryl move tactics four. G. von Kiedrowski: minimum Replicator thought II: Parabolic as opposed to ExponentialGrowth five. A. Bacher, W. Eisenreich, okay. Kis, R. Ladenstein, G. Richter, J. Scheuring, S. Weinkauf: Biosynthesis of Flavins 6. C.L. Hannon, E.V.Anslyn: The Guanidinium workforce: Its organic position and artificial Analogs
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Thus, the mouse seems to have 12 D elements. 46 A. Pliickthun The response of the immune system to a particular antigen occurs in two distinct stages. The first stage, outlined above, already takes place in the development of B-cells before the antigen is ever seen: the random assortment of the genetic elements to prepare a library of binding molecules, by genetic rearrangement. , 1988; Kocks and Rajewsky, 1989). , 1988) of the rearranged antibody genes, and further positive selection of tight binders.
However, the exact conformation of loops remains quite a challenge, especially if different lengths have 30 A. Pliickthun to be considered and no similar precedent is available. Furthermore, framework residues are known to interact with the antigen in some cases, and also with the loops, and thus they can determine the loop conformation (see below). Thus, while the framework structure can be predicted with good accuracy, its sequence can influence the binding properties of the antibody directly, and indirectly via the loop conformation.
The front face of the domain in this view is the dimerization interface. This figure has been adapted from Branden and Tooze, 1991 CDRLl Fig. 4. The complementarily determining loops of the antibody McPC603. The VL domain is on the left, the VH domain is on the right. 2 Modeling The details of the loop conformation thus determine the antibody-antigen interactions. Since the number of available antibody sequences exceeds the available antibody 3D structures by about 2 orders of magnitude, there is great interest in modeling the loop conformations.