By Prof. Jukka Lehto, Dr. Xiaolin Hou(auth.)
Chapter 1 Radionuclides and their Radiometric dimension (pages 1–24):
Chapter 2 detailed beneficial properties of the Chemistry of Radionuclides and their Separation (pages 25–34):
Chapter three elements Affecting Chemical different types of Radionuclides in Aqueous options (pages 35–56):
Chapter four Separation tools (pages 57–80):
Chapter five Yield Determinations and Counting resource coaching (pages 81–90):
Chapter 6 Radiochemistry of the Alkali Metals (pages 91–98):
Chapter 7 Radiochemistry of the Alkaline Earth Metals (pages 99–122):
Chapter eight Radiochemistry of the 3d?Transition Metals (pages 123–137):
Chapter nine Radiochemistry of the 4d?Transition Metals (pages 139–161):
Chapter 10 Radiochemistry of the Lanthanides (pages 163–173):
Chapter eleven Radiochemistry of the Halogens (pages 175–191):
Chapter 12 Radiochemistry of the Noble Gases (pages 193–199):
Chapter thirteen Radiochemistry of Tritium and Radiocarbon (pages 201–216):
Chapter 14 Radiochemistry of Lead, Polonium, Tin, and Selenium (pages 217–237):
Chapter 15 Radiochemistry of the Actinides (pages 239–309):
Chapter sixteen Speciation research (pages 311–335):
Chapter 17 size of Radionuclides via Mass Spectrometry (pages 337–360):
Chapter 18 Sampling and pattern Pretreatment for the selection of Radionuclides (pages 361–389):
Chapter 19 Chemical adjustments prompted via Radioactive Decay (pages 391–396):
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Additional info for Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides: Laboratory Techniques and Methodology
Radionuclides decaying by electron capture (EC) do not emit any observable radiation in the actual decay process. In the rearrangement of a daughter nuclides electron shell, X-ray photons and Auger electrons are emitted and used to measure the activity of EC nuclides. The X-ray photons and the Auger electrons have fairly low energies (a few keV to a few tens of keV), and when measuring them with liquid scintillation counters all coexisting beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides prevent their measurement.
However, this method is rather laborious because of the double measurement and is thus only seldom used. Other methods include: the sample channels ratio method (SCR), the external standard channels ratio method (ESCR), and the external standard spectral quench parameter (SQP) method. In these methods, a quenching standard curve is created by measuring the counting efﬁciency for a set of samples containing the same known activity of the studied radionuclide and an increasing amount of quenching agent, such as CCl4.
If several analytes occur in the same sample to be separated, their individual carriers might need to be added. In addition, the carrier is not merely used for the target radionuclide but also for the interfering radionuclides and other trace elements. When 90 Sr, for example, is separated using traditional nitrate precipitation in fuming nitric acid, a stable barium carrier will be added along with the strontium carrier at the beginning of the separation, ensuring that barium can effectively be removed with the chromate precipitation at a later stage.