By Juan Carlos Kaski (auth.), Juan Carlos Kaski MD, MRCP, FACC, FESC (eds.)
This publication is well timed and tough. inside of its pages are commentaries and reviews at the clinical heritage and explanatory principles for a posh of indicators and investigations referred to as syndrome X. the most common reason through a long way of angina pectoris is coronary artery obstruction because of atheromatous lesions either in the wall of the artery and intruding into the lumen; in such sufferers it's anticipated that there probably ST section melancholy on atrial pacing or on an workout try indicating myocardial ischemia. Syndrome X used to be a time period first utilized in an article written through Kemp in 1973. He used to be bearing on sufferers in staff X in a paper from Arbogast and Bourassa. sufferers in workforce X had 3 positive aspects, specifically angina as judged on a scientific heritage, adjustments of the ST phase at the electrocardiogram in the course of atrial pacing and gentle unobstructed coronary arteries (presumed common) as assessed through the means of coronary angiography. The alterations at the electrocardiogram, conventionally indicative of myocardial ischemia, couldn't be defined at the foundation of any abnormality of the coronary arteries and Kemp named the complicated of fmdings syndrome X due to this seeming paradox and the shortcoming of a unmarried rationalization. within the final thirty-one years there was huge medical curiosity during this syndrome giving upward thrust to quite a few guides. The identify syndrome X has ended in enormous confusion. Physicians are acquainted with the X chromosome and with X associated congenital disorders.
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Extra info for Chest Pain with Normal Coronary Angiograms: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management
The reasons for this are firstly that disordered motility detected by this method is uncommonly observed during episodes of spontaneous pain [8-10], and secondly that the abnormalities of motility are relatively minor, generally identified by observing values outside a reference range.
Psychological Medicine 1997; 27: 1021-1031. Sanders D, Bass C, Mayou RA, Goodwin S, Bryant BM, Tyndel S. Non-cardiac chest pain: why was a brief intervention apparently ineffective? Psychological Medicine 1997; 27: 1933-1040. Mayou R, Bass C, Bryant B. Treatment of non-cardiac chest pain: from research into clinical practice. Heart (in press) 1997; Cannon RO, Quyyumi AA, Mincemoyer R, Stine AM, Gracely RH, Smith WB. Imipramine in patients with chest pain despite normal comary angiograms. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1411-1417.
Panic disorder in patients with chest pain and angiographically normal coronary arteries. Am J CardioI1989;63:1399-1403. Carney RM, Freedland KE, Ludbrook PA, Saunders RD, Jaffe AS. Major depression, panic disorder, and mitral valve prolapse in patients who complain of chest pain. Am J Med 1990;89:757-761. 30 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. Eifert GH, Hodson SE, Tracey DR, Seville JL, Gunawardene K. Heart-focussed anxiety, illness beliefs and behavioral impairment: comparing healthy heart-anxious patients with cardiac and surgical inpatients.