This ebook provides actual figuring out, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, format ideas, and layout concepts which are powerful to reinforce the reliability of varied circuit devices. The authors supply readers with thoughts for cutting-edge and destiny applied sciences, starting from know-how modeling, fault detection and research, circuit hardening, and reliability administration.
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Extra info for Circuit Design for Reliability
Constant, not time dependent values. 5 Average Power Spectrum of the RTN Noise due to the Ensemble of Traps The noise behavior of a device results from the combined effect of all traps found in the device. The noise power spectrum may then be written as the summation of the contribution of each one of the Ntr traps found in the device. 12) Here
6 Energy band diagram of MOSFET with noise relevant traps during two different phases (dashed and dotted) of square wave gate voltage biasing as shown on top of the figure. Note that traps close to Fermi level both in ‘on’ and ‘off ’ state can contribute to the noise. gt (E) shows a U-shaped trap density 27 Gate voltage applied to the device Vgs,on Vgs,off E ET Ef gt (E) Gate Oxide Substrate In order to derive the low frequency noise spectrum of cyclo-stationary RTN, we first calculate the autocorrelation of the RTN, and then apply the Wiener–Khinchin formula to obtain the spectrum.
This work covers measurement, analytical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of these fluctuations. The low-frequency noise model is based on device physics parameters which cause statistical variation in low-frequency noise behavior of individual devices. It includes detailed consideration of statistical effects for distribution of number of traps per device, the trap energy distribution, trap location and its device bias dependent noise contributions [1, 2]. Microscopic discrete quantities are used in model derivation, and analytical equations for the statistical parameters are provided.