By T. Hilgers
This booklet improves understandings of ways and why clientelism endures in Latin the US and why country coverage is frequently useless. Political scientists and sociologists, the individuals hire ethnography, distinctive interviews, case reports, within-case and local comparability, thick descriptions, and strategy tracing.
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Additional resources for Clientelism in Everyday Latin American Politics
Following the promulgation of the 1991 Constitution, it seemed as if clientelism would decline. Later on, there have been waves of partial renewal following the creation of regional funds and their assignment for distribution to individual congress members (see among others Lora 1984; Buitrago and Dávila de Guevara 1991; Losada Veloso 1991; Escobar 1994; Martz 1997; Escobar 2000, 174–191; Sudarsky 2005). Likewise and contrary to its explicit goal of societal transformation, Venezuela has witnessed great continuity in the use of public resources for clientelistic purposes.
A small number of these appointments are justified as a means for political leaders to fashion a circle of government policymakers and managers who share a common agenda. Patronage is clearly a problem (Orac and Rinne 2000). Meritocratic principles need to be reconciled with a political logic, particularly but not only in multiparty, pluralist, or multi-ethnic governmental coalitions. The problem is not merely the entry or promotion of unqualified individuals in the public administration. In contemporary polities, most clientelistic intercessions operate above the fulfillment of minimal capacity requirements for entry into the administration.
An analysis of cultural differences in the construction of hierarchical trust as conducive to contrasting institutional implications for clientelism can be found in Roniger 1987, 310–330. 3 W h at is P ol i t ic s F or ? I n equa l i t y , R e pr ese n tat ion , a n d N e e ds S at isfac t ion U n de r C l i e n t e l ism a n d D e moc r ac y Jon Shefner T his chapter examines the title question by counterposing democracy and clientelism. Long traditions of political theory have offered immense amounts of literature about processes, ideals, normative preferences, and institutional requisites of these systems that are sometimes perceived as polar opposites on continuums of inclusion and representation.