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Extra resources for Climbing the ladder : an update on the status of doctoral women scientists and engineers
The large differential in financial support may arise from the same reason; if the total support available for research degrees in nursing is significantly less than in other medical fields, then women in nursing are disproportionately burdened by having to provide more of their own support. PREDOCTORAL EMPLOYMENT Male and female doctorates are nearly equally likely to be teaching full-time prior to the doctorate, 10 but only a small proportion were so employed--about 4 percent in physical sciences, 6 percent in life sciences, and 9 percent in engineering.
While formal admissions quotas for women have been eliminated in most institutions, the situation with respect to equal financial support may be more problematic. I. Bill (Olson, 1974). As a result of this subsidy, higher education became accessible to men with the requisite ability regardless of their economic status, while women had to continue to finance their own education, thus in effect restricting the numbers who could attend college. This situation was exacerbated by the common practice of awarding women less financial aid from institutional sources as well; as late as 1969-70, institutionally-administered grants to male college students averaged $671 and those to women only $515 (Haven and Horch, 1972), a difference of 32 percent.
It is probable that in this field also the rate of growth will accelerate during the 1980s, based on baccalaureate figures. About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted.