Download Concept Structuring Systems (Toward a Cognitive Semantics, by Leonard Talmy PDF

By Leonard Talmy

During this two-volume set Leonard Talmy defines the sphere of cognitive semantics. He techniques the query of the way language organizes conceptual fabric either at a common point and by way of studying a very important set of specific conceptual domain names: area and time, movement and site, causation and strength interplay, and a spotlight and point of view. Talmy keeps that those are one of the such a lot primary parameters during which language constructions notion. by way of combining those conceptual domain names into an built-in entire, Talmy indicates, we improve our realizing of the final conceptual and semantic constitution of ordinary language. quantity 1 examines the elemental platforms during which language shapes strategies. quantity 2 units forth typologies in response to which ideas are dependent and the techniques in which they're based.

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Extra info for Concept Structuring Systems (Toward a Cognitive Semantics, Vol. 1)

Sample text

As a whole, the verb form can thus be glossed as `a-¯exible-linear-objectis-located on-the-ground because-of-gravity-acting-on-it'. But to suggest its nounless ¯avor, the Atsugewi form can perhaps be fancifully rendered in English as: ``it gravitically-linearizes-aground''. In this example, then, Atsugewi refers to two physical entities, a ropelike object and the ground underfoot, without any nouns. In a pattern complementary to that of English, Atsugewi in some measure does have simplex nouns referring directly to a physical object or substanceÐfor instance, naha `head'.

The signi®cance of these ®ndings can be brought into greater relief. Consider again the earlier example in which the ant crawled across my palm and the bus drove across the country. It is clear that we have a number of cognitive systems that would register and process the di¨erences between these two situations. Thus, we would register the fact that the ant event takes place within a single span of attention, while the bus event extends over days and must be reconstructed in memory. We would process the fact that the ant event occurs within a single scope of perception, while the bus event extends well beyond any such scope and, again, can be pieced together only in memory.

Correlatively, the language will often contain grammatical forms that interact with each lexicalization type in a way that yields the expression of another notion of the category. Each such type of interaction can be regarded as a type of cognitive operation that converts the indication of one notion to that of another within the same category. This principle can be termed that of intracategorial conversion. A corollary principle is that a language with grammatical forms for converting from notion A to notion B frequently has forms as well for conversion in the reverse directionÐthat is, it can also trigger the reverse cognitive operation.

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