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By Mohammad Gharipour

The center East is recognized for its ancient gardens that experience constructed over greater than millenniums. The function of city panorama tasks in heart japanese towns has grown in prominence, with a gentle shift in emphasis from gardens for the personal sphere to an more and more public functionality. The modern panorama tasks, both designed as public plazas or public parks, have performed an important position in moving the fashionable center japanese towns to a brand new period and likewise in reworking to a newly formed social tradition during which the general public has a voice. This book considers what ties those tasks to their historic context, and what local and native components and ideas were utilized in their design.

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Extra resources for Contemporary Urban Landscapes of the Middle East

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Modernism as an ongoing process has established vibrant social relations and cultural identities for modern capital cities through the design of urban parks and landscapes. 51 For instance, economic development encouraged the government of Saudi Arabia to implement major planning projects in Riyadh. In the 1990s, planners attempted to formulate concepts of cultural identity, public space, and national ceremony through the creation of urban parks. These parks in essence replaced the landscaped palm gardens eliminated during the city’s rapid expansion in the 1970s, when planners struggled to provide residences and public buildings to accommodate the growing urban population.

The majority of urban landscape projects in the Middle East such as parks, public gardens, and public spaces were either influenced by movements in the West (principally the United States and Europe) or were directly executed by American or European firms. In Chapter Five, Farhan Karim studies the involvement of foreign firms in the urban design of Islamabad, the new capital of Pakistan founded in 1959. In order to use open space of varied scale and significance to create an integrated system of landscape settings for the new city, the Greek firm Doxiadis Associates laid out the spatial, infrastructural, and ecological or landscape grid of the city and specified a cluster of micro-scale urban squares in the residential fabric.

The financial and professional support of international organizations such as UNESCO, the World Monuments Fund, and the Aga Khan Foundation has enabled the construction of new landscapes and the preservation of older forms. The Al-Azhar Park in Cairo is an example of a successful international initiative that received popular interest and support. This public park, which was created and funded by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, has played a significant role in improving urban life in the city. Importantly, national and international initiatives have supported the preservation of historic gardens to make them open museums and recreational sites for the public.

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