By Alec Groysman
This publication addresses corrosion difficulties and their recommendations at amenities within the oil refining and petrochemical undefined, together with cooling water and boiler feed water devices. additional, it describes and analyzes corrosion regulate activities, corrosion tracking, and corrosion administration. Corrosion difficulties are a perennial factor within the oil refining and petrochemical undefined, as they result in a deterioration of the sensible homes of steel gear and damage the surroundings – either one of which have to be safe for the sake of present and destiny generations. consequently, this e-book examines and analyzes normal and odd corrosion failure situations and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical amenities, together with issues of: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, warmth exchangers, and pumps. moreover, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, tension corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically brought about corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion fatigue taking place at refinery devices. eventually, fouling, corrosion and cleansing are mentioned during this book.
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Additional resources for Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry
For instance, aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) can exist in liquid state up to 160–180 °C depending on its concentration. e. gasoline, kerosene or gas oil at *100–290 °C). Rectiﬁcation of crude oil in atmospheric distillation column proceeds in the presence of steam which is added to the bottom of the column to facilitate fractionation of hydrocarbons. Water (H2O) can be in the form of either steam or liquid condensate in hydrocarbon organic phase at 100–290 °C. Because of the polarity of H2O molecules, they are adsorbed on metal surface and it is very difﬁcult to remove them from it.
So, air can be detrimental not only in corrosion sense but also in fouling (see Chap. 7). Hydrogen sulﬁde (see Appendix D). Hydrogen sulﬁde (H2S) is present in original crude oils but also can be formed as a result of activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) during storage or transportation of crude and destruction of sulfur organic compounds at high temperatures (in furnaces and distillation columns). Hydrogen sulﬁde dissolves in water (forming weak hydrosulfuric acid H2S, pH * 4) but in hydrocarbons signiﬁcantly better.
The fourth (corrosion in natural environments) and ﬁfth (speciﬁc corrosion phenomena, such as acid dew point corrosion and corrosion under thermal insulation) groups are described in detail in [1, 2]. However, corrosion cases and their analysis will be given in this book too (see Chaps. 5, 6). 1 Low-Temperature Corrosion Most low-temperature corrosion problems in oil reﬁneries and petrochemical plants are not caused by hydrocarbons that are processed but by various inorganic compounds, such as H2O, H2S, HCl, NH3, NaOH, H2SO4, Na2CO3, and dissolved oxygen.