By Richard J. D. Tilley
Presents an intensive knowing of the chemistry and physics of defects, permitting the reader to control them within the engineering of materials.Reinforces theoretical thoughts by way of putting emphasis on actual global approaches and applications.Includes forms of end-of-chapter difficulties: a number of selection (to try out wisdom of phrases and rules) and extra broad routines and calculations (to construct talents and understanding).Supplementary fabric on crystallography and band constitution are integrated in separate appendices.
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Extra info for Defects in Solids (Special Topics in Inorganic Chemistry)
6 THERMOELECTRIC PROPERTIES: THE SEEBECK COEFFICIENT AS AN EXAMPLE When the two ends of a material containing mobile charge carriers, holes or electrons, are held at different temperatures, a voltage is produced, a phenomenon called the Seebeck effect (Fig. 11). The Seebeck coefﬁcient of a material, a, is deﬁned as the ratio of the electric potential produced when no current ﬂows to the temperature difference present across a material:5 a¼+ fH À fC Df ¼+ TH À TC DT where fH and fC are the potentials and TH and TC are the temperatures at the hot end and the cold end of the sample, respectively.
1 Schottky Defects Compounds are made up of atoms of more than one chemical element. The point defects that can occur in pure compounds parallel those that occur in monatomic materials, but there is an added complication in this case concerning the composition of the material. In this chapter discussion is conﬁned to the situation in which the composition of the crystal is (virtually) ﬁxed. Such solids are called stoichiometric compounds. (The situations that arise when the composition is allowed to vary are considered in Chapter 4 and throughout much of the rest of this book.
F centers and related defects are discussed further in Chapter 9. Color can also be induced into colorless crystals by the incorporation of impurity atoms. The mineral corundum, a-Al2O3, is a colorless solid. Rubies are crystals of Al2O3 containing atomically dispersed traces of Cr2O3 impurity. The formula of the crystal can be written (CrxAl12x)2O3. In the solid the Al3þ and Cr3þ cations randomly occupy sites between the oxygen ions, so that the Cr3þ cations are impurity substitutional, CrAl, defects.