By Antonio R. Damasio
Since Descartes famously proclaimed, "I imagine, for that reason I am," technology has usually neglected feelings because the resource of a person’s actual being. Even glossy neuroscience has tended, until eventually lately, to be aware of the cognitive elements of mind functionality, brushing aside feelings. this angle started to switch with the book of Descartes’ Error in 1995. Antonio Damasio—"one of the world’s prime neurologists" (The big apple Times)—challenged conventional rules in regards to the connection among feelings and rationality. during this wondrously enticing e-book, Damasio takes the reader on a trip of medical discovery via a sequence of case reports, demonstrating what many folks have lengthy suspected: feelings usually are not a luxurious, they're necessary to rational pondering and to common social behavior.
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Additional resources for Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain
As with an exploration of the nature of the stimulus, exploring olfactory system circuit anatomy can help identify possible mechanistic opportunities and constraints on circuit function and its output. However, before we begin our overview of odors and olfactory functional anatomy, we will brieﬂy perform a similar analysis of a comparator system —the visual system. We could have chosen other sensory systems, but the vi- sual system is probably the best understood by the most people and thus should be most useful for our purposes.
We could have chosen other sensory systems, but the vi- sual system is probably the best understood by the most people and thus should be most useful for our purposes. We will not deliver a detailed, nuanced description of the mammalian visual system; instead, we will identify critical functional components that we can then try to ﬁnd analogies for in olfaction. The Visual System At one level, of course, the stimulus driving the visual system is electromagnetic radiation within a speciﬁc range of wavelengths and varying in intensity.
For example, familiar odor objects can include “sweet” components (Stevenson, Prescott, and Boakes 1995). Finally, inclusion of memory in olfactory object perception raises the importance of top-down processing in this system. We hypothesize that, as in vision and other sensory systems, expectation and internal behavioral state can inﬂuence odor perception. Odor object percepts, therefore, may not only include multiple odorant features and multi-modal components, but also may be guided by past associations, expectations, verbal labels, etc.