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By Frank Kreith, R.F. Boehm

to raise using direct touch tactics, the nationwide technology origin sup­ ported a workshop on direct touch warmth move on the solar power study Insti­ tute in the summertime of 1985. We served as organizers for this workshop, which em­ phasized a space of thermal engineering that, in our opinion, has nice promise for the long run, yet has no longer but reached the purpose of prevalent advertisement software. for this reason, a precis of the kingdom of data at this element is well timed. The workshop had a twin goal: 1. To summarize the present country of data in this kind of shape that business practi­ tioners could make use of the to be had info. 2. to point the study and improvement had to increase the state of the art, indicating not just what sort of learn is required, but in addition the commercial poten­ tial which may be discovered if the knowledge to be acquired during the proposed learn actions have been available.

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Sample text

Cooling towers represent a form of packed column, and many studies have been made of the performance of pac kings (mostly of a structured type, such as wooden slats arranged carefully) for this service. Representative studies have been by Kelly and Swenson (1956) and Lichtenstein (1943). More recently, Barile et al. (1974) have reported on the performance of a "turbulent bed cooling tower" employing a fluidized bed of hollow spheres. 2 Spray Columns Spray chambers are convenient for direct-contact heat transfer operations and are simple in design, containing as internals only one or more banks of spray nozzles.

An example of this is the injection of air streams into a cooling pond to enhance the removal of waste heat by both convection and phase change. Evaporation is just one example of a whole group of important phenomena that involve heat and mass transfer simultaneously. As noted earlier, mass transfer operations have been the genesis for much of the equipment used in direct-contact heat transfer applications. In all cases of direct-contact heat transfer, the possible effects of mass transfer must be considered.

O(Tl,i)/oXj + alPlg. ( v;. - Vi) represents the drag force of the dispersed phase on the continuous phase and g. is the body force due to gravity. The term Tl,i is the viscous shear tensor for the continuous phase. This should be a function of the volume fraction and strain rate of the fluid. The correct formulation for this tensor has not been established. The momentum equation for the discontinuous phase is o(adPd V;)/ot + o(adPd V; Vi)/oxi = -adoP /OXj COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR TWO-PHASE FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER 51 (13) where Tti is the shear stress tensor for the discontinuous phase.

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