Download Diverse Divers: Physiology and behavior by Gerald L. Kooyman PDF

By Gerald L. Kooyman

This booklet isn't really a traditional evaluate of diving body structure. The assurance of the literature has been selective instead of en­ compassing, the emphasis has been on box stories instead of laboratory investigations, and the dive responses defined are usually mentioned from the point of view of a few of the failings or weaknesses within the conclusions. a few of these issues are of extra historic curiosity to notice how our options have developed as we examine extra approximately habit and responses to typical diving unlike compelled submersions within the laboratory. for that reason there's a measure of evaluate of a few experiments on my half which may look seen or arguable to the professional. i've got this planat instances that allows you to relief the reader, who i'm hoping is usually an untergraduate or graduate stu­ dent, the nonspecialist, and the layman, in appreciating to some extent the extent of dissatisfaction or skepticism approximately yes components of study in diving body structure. In view of historic limitations in vertebrate biology, the topic is of wide sufficient value to seize the curiosity of a large viewers of readers if i've got performed my activity good. For ex­ abundant, of the key epochal transitions or occasions there were in vertebrate background, 3 come instantly to brain: (1) The transition from aquatic to aerial breathing which finally ended in a extensive career of terrestrial habitats. (2) the improvement of endothermy.

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Additional resources for Diverse Divers: Physiology and behavior

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The first breath restored his awareness. The pattern of alveolar PC02 and P02 changes as a diver descends to 5 and 10 m in the experiments of Craig and Harley (1968) were similar to the previous studies. The Pe02 rose steadily (5 m), or was constant (10 m) while Paz steadily declined. Upon ascent, when there was a precipitous drop in Paoz ' the subjective impressions of the divers were reported (Craig and Harley 1968). Immediately after descent the divers felt near their breakpoint (BP), but this subsided until later in the dive.

Seals tend to dive deeper than the fur seals and sea lions. The maximum depth records of seals range from 300 to 900 m. Once again, sexual dimorphism may make a difference. The deepest dive for a phocid of 900 m was obtained from a female northern elephant seal (Le Boeuf et al. 1988). The much larger males probably dive deeper. There are 78 species of whales, which have the greatest range in size, shape, and behavior of all aquatic groups of diving vertebrates. There is a full range of 38 diving depths from the shallow-diving river dolphins to the sperm whales that feed over the continental slopes at depths down to perhaps 2500 m.

Mechanical effects of compression are probably minimal in diving birds because much of the gas of the pulmonary system is in air sacs outside of the thoracic cavity. The sea snakes likewise have compressible bodies so that mechanical distortions should not be a significant problem. Sea turtles, in contrast, appear to have a rigid carapace, but the plastron appears to be flexible, at least in the green and Kemp's sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi). Whether it is of unlimited flexibility or sets some depth limit requires further study.

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