By Michael Warburg
Scarcity of water has caused a couple of structural, behavioural, physiological and ecological variations in amphibians inhabiting seasonally xeric habitats.
This publication describes structural and practical diversifications of key organs similar to epidermis, kidneys, bladder, lungs and ovaries. Behavioural responses to excessive temperatures typically contain thermoregulation and the choice of optimum temperatures and humidity. distinctive emphasis is put on physiological variations: water, electrolyte, nitrogen, and thermal stability and their endocrine regulate are taken care of intimately. improvement and metamorphosis, larval pageant for foodstuff assets, and reproductive techniques are just many of the fascinating issues within the bankruptcy on ecological aspects.
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Additional info for Ecophysiology of Amphibians Inhabiting Xeric Environments
Platycephalus, Limnodynastes spenceri and Neobatrachus pictus (Lee and Mercer 1967), Lepidobatrachus llanensis (Leptodactylidae; McClanahan et al. 1976), Pternohyla fodiens (Hylidae; Ruibal and Hillman 1981); Pyxicephalus adspersus and Leptopelis bocagei (Ranidae; Loveridge and Craye 1979; Loveridge and Withers 1981) and Siren intermedia and S. lacertina (Sirenidae; Reno et al. 1972; Etheridge 1990a,b). In the hylid Pternohyla Fig. 6. Cocoon formation in Neobatrachus sp. 1. Cocoon formation in amphibians from xeric habitats Species Reference Pternohyla fodiens Smilisca baudinii Smilisca baudinii Litoria alboguttata Cyc/orana platycephalus (compact layers of keratinized cells) C.
Tigrinum obtains less than 30% of its oxygen via the skin (Whitford and Sherman 1968). Likewise, when the 44 Structural and Functional Adaptations of Key Organs permeability of water through the skin is reduced (in Phyllomedusa sauvagei and Chiromantis xerampelina), so is the cutaneous gas exchange (Stinner and Shoemaker 1987). Since oxygen uptake through the skin is passive, its efficiency is dependent upon the number of capillaries and their proximity to the skin surface (Czopek 1962). The role ofthe skin in CO2 excretion remains constant or increases after metamorphosis (Burggren and Wood 1981; Feder and Burggren 1985).
This is brought about by forming several cell layers that are composed of a variety of cell types. Under these layers calcified matter provides further defence. Finally, the dermal glands are the most significant sources of moisture and for thermoregulation. The direct relation between mucus secretion and temperature is not yet well understood. There are a number of points cardinal to survival under xeric conditions that need further clarification. For example, does the transport of ions and water differ between cocooned and normal adults?