By Nigel John Ashton
The years 1955-59 have been a necessary transitional interval for the Anglo-American dating within the center East. British and American leaders sought to guard chilly battle and oil pursuits within the sector opposed to the history of a renaissance of Arab nationalism personified by way of the Egyptian chief Nasser. as a result of broad declassified reputable documentation, this examine lines the British and American responses to the Turco-Iraqi Pact of 1955, the Suez situation, the Syrian predicament of 1957, the outbreak of civil strife in Lebanon, and the Iraqi Revolution of 1958. It indicates how the differing priorities of the 2 powers within the sector promoted a patchwork of disagreement and cooperation over center japanese questions. For Britain, this learn unearths that it used to be the Iraqi Revolution instead of Suez which ended in a redefinition of technique within the quarter, and a focus at the defence of her oil pursuits within the Gulf.
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Extra info for Eisenhower, Macmillan, and the Problem of Nasser: Anglo-American Relations and Arab Nationalism, 1955-59
The plan was intended to supersede the Treaty of 1936, and required the British to withdraw all of their troops not assigned to the Command and surrender their base in the Canal Zone to the Egyptians, provided that the Egyptians assigned the base to the MEC, maintained it in peacetime, and permitted the new organization to establish its headquarters on Egyptian soil. In the event or imminent contingency of war, Egypt was required to guarantee the Command access to all necessary facilities including ports and airfields.
Domestically, post-war Syrian politics functioned as a competition for power between and within three broad groups: the traditional notables; the army; and the new ideological political parties. In the first instance, it was the notables, large landowners whose influence dated back to the Ottoman period, who inherited power from the French. They numbered perhaps as few as 50 influential families. Foremost among them was Shukri Quwatli who was installed as first President of the republic. However, the notables proved strangely inept at handling the business of government, and this, together with their split into factions based on the rival centres of Damascus and Aleppo, brought the military into politics.
The constitution of 1926 had vested all power in the hands of King Ibn Saud, who was bound only by the laws of the Sharia. Government other than that supplied by the king was minimal until the 1950s. Its expansion came about only with the dramatic increases in oil revenues which began after the Second World War. Revenue from this source rose from $13 million in 1946 to $172 million by 1952. The 1950s, therefore, witnessed the beginnings of the economic development of the country. These changes, together with the impact of pan-Arabism, were reflected in a struggle for political power after the death of King Ibn Saud between his sons Saud and Feisal.