By Miroslav M. Begovic (auth.), Miroslav M. Begovic (eds.)
Electric transmission networks are one of the biggest human-made engineering structures: for instance, the transmission community within the usa covers over 300,000 km of traces and is served by means of 500 businesses (electric utilities). In sharp distinction to the very incremental advancements of the final century, transmission and keep watch over applied sciences skilled an immense step forward first and foremost of the 21st century. The swift development of recent power new release applied sciences (renewables), major advances in details processing utilized to process tracking, making plans, operation, keep watch over, and defense, radical adjustments in distribution networks, and key shifts in finish person habit (advanced metering and keep watch over of call for reaction) have mixed to supply the fashionable built-in electric infrastructure regularly often called the shrewdpermanent grid.
Featuring state of the art, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability technological know-how and Technology, this e-book offers a close advent to pick key themes which span strength expertise, engineering, and concrete making plans. world wide specialists talk about the mixing of electrical strength infrastructure into the wider severe infrastructures of the fashionable global and their a number of interdependencies. committed chapters disguise particular issues starting from underground transmission and distribution, to power and water interdependence, and their implications for city parts. assurance additionally comprises the main function of latest coverage projects as catalysts of change.
Read Online or Download Electrical Transmission Systems and Smart Grids: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology PDF
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Additional info for Electrical Transmission Systems and Smart Grids: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology
There are several bodies publishing standards relevant to substations. ” PES includes several committees devoted to various aspects of substations that publish a large number of standards applicable to substations. org. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is a trade association of the electrical manufacturing industry that manufactures products used in the generation, transmission and distribution, control, and end-use of electricity. NEMA provides a forum for the development of technical standards that are in the best interests of the industry and users; advocacy of industry policies on legislative and regulatory matters; and collection, analysis, and dissemination of industry data.
E) Winding connections, which indicates how the three phases of transformer windings are connected together at each side. There are two basic connections of transformer windings; delta (where the end of each phase winding is connected to the beginning of the next phase forming a triangle); and star (where the ends of each phase winding are connected together, forming a neutral point and the beginning of windings are connected outside). Typically, distribution transformer is connected delta at the high-voltage side and wye at the low-voltage side.
McDonald et al. Fig. 26 Voltage transformers (Courtesy of General Electric) however, banks of single-phase transformers can also be used. For reliability and maintenance purposes, two transformers are typically employed at the substation, but the number can vary depending on the importance of the consumers fed from the substation and the distribution system design in general. Transformers can be classified by the following factors: (a) Power rating, which is expressed in kilovolt-amperes (kVA) or megavoltsamperes (MVA), and indicates the amount of power that can be transferred through the transformer.