Download Electrically Driven Membrane Processes by Beier S.P. PDF

By Beier S.P.

Electrically pushed membrane procedures, and electrodialysis particularly, are very important unit operations, specially in the box of desalination - making tab water from sea water. Electrically pushed membrane strategies could be brought. very important phrases corresponding to serious present density, desalination measure, and present potency may be defined via illustrations and a large number of examples. therefore, you'll be conversant in the elemental ideas and conception inside of this significant box on a bachelor or grasp of technological know-how point.

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Data from an electrodialysis experiment with NaCl solutions at three different flow velocities in the diluate chamber are given in Table 4. Again an electrodialysis system consisting of 20 cell pairs is used. Table 4: Critical current at different flow velocities Experimental values for electrodialysis experiments with NaCl solutions at different flow velocities. 61×10-2 * Critical current*, Icrit [A=C/s] 4,35 4,65 5,55 Mean log. Conc. 45 Experimentally determined as sketched in Example B on page 29 A mean logarithmic value for the diluate concentration is used since the concentration changes from the inlet to the outlet of the membrane stack.

From the equation it is seen that a total desalination corresponds to a desalination degree of 1 (100 %). The desalination degree is (among different factors) influenced by the flow rate of the feed stream. 2 M. The concentrations are measured at a voltage difference over the membrane stack of 10 volts and the feed consists of sodium chloride solutions. Data from the experiments are shown in Table 5. 2 M, outlet concentration and desalination degree for experiments conducted at 10 volts at different flow velocities.

16 mole/l. It is seen in Figure 12 that the thermodynamic efficiency throughout the whole experiment is very low and in all cases below 4 %. It is also seen that at low voltage the thermodynamic is higher than at large voltage. An explanation could be that at these conditions the irreversible processes at the electrodes do not play as large a role at when the voltage is increased. Therefore the efficiency at low voltage is “closer” the thermodynamic least amount of required energy than at larger voltage.

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