By Pamela Kyle Crossley, Helen F. Siu, Donald S. Sutton
Targeting the Ming (1368-1644) and (especially) the Qing (1364-1912) eras, this e-book analyzes an important moments within the formation of cultural, nearby, and spiritual identities. The participants research the function of the nation in numerous environments on China's "peripheries," taking note of shifts in legislations, alternate, social stratification, and cultural discussion. They locate that neighborhood groups have been severe individuals within the shaping in their personal identities and attention in addition to the nature and behaviour of the country. At convinced instances the kingdom was once institutionally definitive, however it may be symbolic and contingent. They show how the imperial discourse is many-faceted, instead of a monolithic agent of cultural assimilation.
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Additional resources for Empire at the Margins: Culture, Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China (Studies on China)
Since, in contrast to the old huntspeciﬁc niru, the company was a permanent unit, signiﬁcant authority accrued to the company captain, who held what was in most cases a hereditary position. He was charged with selecting and training soldiers, as well as with overseeing the general well-being of everyone in the company. Even more ethnicity in the qing eight banners 31 power was in the hands of the banner commanders, who included in their number some of the most powerful men around the emperor, so that for the ﬁrst century of its existence the Eight Banners was thoroughly embedded into the Qing political structure—a little too embedded for the tastes of the Yongzheng emperor (r.
If so (and even if not), how do we explain the development of ethnicity 34 mark c. elliott among the Manchus, who possessed as keen a sense of their own identity as those who were made the object of forced acculturation? This question is related to the issue of Han Chinese identity, given that who and what the “Chinese” were was by no means any more transparent in the sixteenth or eighteenth century than it was in the twentieth. Did Han share an ethnic identity? If so, how was it produced? It seems then that, while they may work well enough for the twentieth century, deﬁnitions of ethnicity that emphasize subordination in a modern context leave out rather a lot.
On the tusi, see the studies in this volume by Herman and Sutton. On the precursors and parallels of the tusi system in Yunnan, see Cai, A Society without Fathers or Husbands, 63–79. 19. For background and an introduction to previous studies, see Crossley, A Translucent Mirror, 246–62. Recently the saga of the Zeng Jing inquisitions has been narrated in Spence, Treason by the Book. 20. See Siu and Liu in this volume; this is also described in Kuang Lu’s writing on the Zhuang, see Herman, “The Cant of Conquest,” 135–68 below.