By John-Michael Kuczynski
Meant for philosophically minded psychologists and psychologically minded philosophers, this ebook identifies the ways in which psychology has hobbled itself by means of adhering too strictly to empiricism, this being the doctrine that each one wisdom is observation-based. within the first a part of this two-part paintings, we exhibit that empiricism is fake. within the moment half, we establish the psychology-relevant outcomes of this truth. 5 of those are of unique value: (i) while a few psychopathologies (e.g. obsessive-compulsive sickness) corrupt the task mediated by way of one’s mental structure, others (e.g. sociopathy) corrupt that structure itself.
(ii) the fundamental tenets of psychoanalysis are coherent.
(iii) All propositional attitudes are ideals.
(iv) Selves are minds that self-evaluate.
(v) it really is by way of giving our strategies a perceptible shape that we let ourselves to guage them, and it's by way of expressing ourselves in language and paintings that we supply our techniques a perceptible shape. (Series A)
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Extra resources for Empiricism and the foundations of psychology
These attempts fail quite as badly as their attempts to spatiotemporalize properties. ”40 For a given expression to have a given meaning is for it to be used in a certain way; it is not for it to be associated with some non-spatiotemporal object. In Chapter 5, we’ll consider Wittgenstein’s reasons for saying that meaning is use. But whatever Wittgenstein’s reasons were for saying it, he was wrong to do so. An expression-token is not just a burst of sound (or ink-deposit or pattern of light on a monitor…).
But what a complex expression means is not strictly a matter of convention. Supposing that sentence S has meaning M, S’s having that meaning is a logical consequence of conventions concerning the simple expressions composing M, but it is not itself a convention. ” It is not a matter of convention that SN has P for its meaning. It is a logical consequence of the conventions assigning meaning to “prime,” “number,” etc. So, given only that one knows of these conventions, one doesn’t know what SN means: one must figure out what PN means.
If Newton’s theories are right, then (i) The gravitational attraction between two bodies is directly proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them; (ii) A given undisturbed body moves in a rectilinear fashion; (iii) A given body’s gravitational mass coincides with its inertial mass; and (iv) For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Supposing that (i)–(iv) are correct, we can observe instances of them. But we cannot possibly observe such instances as such instances.