By Fred Skolnik
Some time past thirty-five years the Encyclopaedia Judaica has come to occupy a rarefied area on the planet of Jewish studying. Authoritative, finished, severe but available, it graced the library cabinets of students and rabbis, of the realized and the studious, or even of the would-be studious, consulted through the curious and the inquisitive, an enormous start line for a trip of studying.
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Wasiutiński, Ludność żydowska w Polsce… (1930), 84; O. Hedemann, Dzisna i Druja (1934); A. Druyanow, in: Reshumot, 1 (1925), 437–49; Yad Vashem Archives. DRUYANOW, ALTER (Asher, Avraham Abba; 1870–1938), Hebrew writer, editor, and Zionist leader. Born in Druya, in the district of Vilna, he studied at the Volozhin yeshivah in his youth and then turned to commerce. ), using various pen names. From 1900 to 1905 he was the secretary of the Committee for the Settlement of Ereẓ Israel in Odessa. In 1906 he immigrated to Palestine, but returned to Russia in 1909 and until 1914 was editor of Ha-Olam, the official organ of the World Zionist Organization.
DUALISM, the religious or philosophical doctrine which holds that reality consists, or is the outcome, of two ultimate principles which cannot be reduced to one more ultimate ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 6 first cause. Dualistic systems have appeared in philosophical (metaphysical) as well as moral forms, both of which have exerted considerable influence on the history of religions, including the history of Judaism. Philosophical Dualism In the history of Western thought, philosophical dualism goes back to *Platonism and *neoplatonism which developed and spread the idea of an opposition between spirit and matter, spirit being the higher, purer, and eternal principle, whereas matter was the lower and imperfect form of being, subject to change and corruption.
Jewish poll tax payers numbered 1,923 in 1765. The great fair of *Lvov was moved to Dubno between 1773 and 1793, and the city became an important commercial center. The most famous of the 18t-century Jewish preachers of Lithuania, Jacob *Kranz, was known as the Maggid of Dubno after the city with which he was most closely associated. In the 19t century Haskalah (Enlightenment) activists like the physician and writer Reuben Kalischer, the lexicographer and poet Solomon *Mandelkern (author of a monumental Bible concordance), and the poet and writer Abraham Baer *Gottlober lived there.