Download Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa (2nd by Neil Caplan, Philip Mattar, Charles E. Butterworth, Michael PDF

By Neil Caplan, Philip Mattar, Charles E. Butterworth, Michael R. Fischbach, Eric Hooglund, Laurie King-Irani, John Ruedy

The second one variation of this encyclopedia (four-volume set, 2004) covers the fashionable background of the center East and North Africa, with significant sections on Colonialism and Imperialism, the area Wars, the Israeli-Palestinian clash, and the United countries involvement within the sector.

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His family, which claimed a direct line of descent from the prophet Muhammad, provided the crucial link between the two. Another key to an understanding of Abdullah’s personality is that, as a rule, he sought cooperation, even in the midst of conflict. He preferred bargaining to fighting, and he constantly formulated value-maximizing strategies in which he compromised with his adversaries so that all sides might stand to gain from the outcome. Although Abdullah strove for unity, he engaged in nation-building on a limited scale when unity was unattainable.

Abdülhamit associated himself with the revolt to regain power. The Macedonian army, however, proved more powerful than the rebels. They converged on Constantinople, took control, and reinstated the Parliament. On 27 April 1909, Abdülhamit was deposed and exiled to Salonika. At the onset of the First Balkan War in 1912, he was moved to the Beylerbeyi Palace on the Bosporus, where he died in 1918. See also Abdülaziz; Balkan Wars (1912–1913); Berlin, Congress and Treaty of; Committee for Union and Progress.

ARTHUR GOLDSCHMIDT ABD AL-SABUR, SALAH [1931–1981] Egyptian author, journalist, and poet. Abd al-Sabur was born in the Egyptian countryside but grew up in Cairo. Originally writing poetry in traditional styles, Abd al-Sabur later wrote in free verse and is considered the leader of Egyptian modernists. In all of his works, Abd al-Sabur draws upon contemporary life for his subjects and his symbolism, expressing themes of existentialism, the search for new values, and the longing for youth and for rural life.

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