By K.L. Reifsnider (Eds.)
This ebook offers the 1st accomplished assessment of its style at the long term behaviour of composite fabrics and constructions subjected to time variable mechanical, thermal, and chemical impacts, a subject matter of severe significance to the layout, improvement, and certification of excessive functionality engineering buildings. particular issues tested comprise harm, harm characterization, and harm mechanics; fatigue checking out and overview; fatigue behaviour of brief and lengthy fibre strengthened polymer and steel matrix fabrics; viscoelastic and moisture results; delamination; statistical issues; the modeling of cumulative harm improvement; and existence prediction. the amount offers an in depth presentation of information, discussions, and comparisons at the behaviour of the foremost sorts of fabric platforms in present use, in addition to wide research and modeling (including the 1st presentation of labor now not came across somewhere else)
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Additional info for Fatigue of Composite Materials
This stress component is a primary contributor to the occurrence of secondary cracking as demonstrated in fig. 8 and discussed earlier. It is listed as the second most important stress component in our order of influence, as secondary cracking behavior is ubiquitous in our observations of damage development in composite laminates which have fairly brittle matrix materials such as epoxy (cf. refs. 33 and 34). This is true even in situations where the global ply stress in the ^-direction (calculated from laminate analysis) is compressive as a result of Poisson mismatches between the individual plies.
Of course, more complex and complete representations can be constructed; in fact, Laws and Dvorak have recently used an effective modulus scheme to obtain an excellent representation of the data shown in fig. 17 . Attempts have also been made to generate representations of the formation of multiple primary cracks in off-axis plies during cyclic loading . Chou and Wang postulated the existence of a "damage function" which maps the quasi-static crack KL. 00X10" CRACK DENSITY ( C R A C K S / I N .
The local increase in the normal stress σ causes a corresponding region of increased local strain in that direction, which causes the material element in that state of stress to contract in the j-direction (in an attempt to maintain its volume) by an amount which is greater than the surrounding material further away from the crack tip. This contraction is, of course, resisted by the surrounding region, which results in the creation of a tensile normal stress, a , in the material along the edge of the crack.