By Sergio Martellucci, Massimo Santarsiero
Optical beams are electromagnetic waves that stay basically focused round an average axis upon unfastened propagation or which are guided by way of appropriate constructions. The examine of those beams has existed some time past and because then this box has been a spotlight of energetic research. besides the fact that, lately, the curiosity on optical beams has additional elevated, end result of the availability of many varieties of laser assets, characterised by means of very various houses, so far as their polarization, coherence, spectral content material, and spatial distribution are concerned.This e-book includes lectures provided within the thirty fifth overseas institution of Quantum Electronics on the Ettore Majorana Centre in Erice, Sicily. It offers the newest assurance at the improvement and increase in ""Free and Guided Optical Beams"". the aim of those lectures used to be to provide an up-to-date evaluation, as whole as attainable, on issues in regards to the propagation of sunshine beams in unfastened house, in fabrics, and in guiding constructions, and to supply the instruments had to its examine, either from the theoretical and the appliance element of view.The lectures offered listed below are written in prolonged review-like layout. either introductory basic subject matters and up to date learn effects are reviewed, making this an indispensible booklet for beginner in addition to specialists during this box"
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Additional info for Free and Guided Optical Beams: Proceedings of the International School of Quantum Electronicserice Slcily, Italy 20 - 27 November 2002
It is the case, for instance, of a fundamental Gaussian beam that is injected into the fiber off axis. If the width of the Gausian is chosen as that of the propagation modes of the fiber, the beam will propagate inside the fibre without changing its width, but its center will oscillate around the axis of the fiber. This is due to the "lens-like" effect of a fiber with parabolic refractive index. This corresponds to a coherent state of the harmonic oscillator. Due to the same effect, if we inject off-axis a Gaussian beam with a different spot size, then the beam not only oscillates around the axis, but also changes its width, passing periodically from smaller to larger values of the spot size.
Lett. 28, 1069 (2003). 26. T. Setala, M. Kaivola, and A. T. Friberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123902 (2002). 25 27. T, Setala, Spatial Correlations and Partial Polarization in Electromagnetic Optical Fields: Effects of Evanescent Waves, PhD thesis (Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, 2003). This page intentionally left blank OPTICAL BEAMS AS QUANTUM MODELS FRANCO GORI Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Roma Tre via della Vasca Navale, 84 - 00146 Roma (Italy) E-mail: gori@uniroma3. it Abstract The differential equation governing, within the paraxial regime, the propagation of an optical field through a medium with variable refractive index is formally identical to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a particle in two dimensions.
The quantum analog is a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator, whose energy eigenstates are, of course, the same Hermite-Gaussian functions, and this is, actually, even better known. But the optical analogy allows us also to predict behaviors of the quantum particle that are not completely trivial. It is the case, for instance, of a fundamental Gaussian beam that is injected into the fiber off axis. If the width of the Gausian is chosen as that of the propagation modes of the fiber, the beam will propagate inside the fibre without changing its width, but its center will oscillate around the axis of the fiber.