Download From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the by Michael J. Klarman PDF

By Michael J. Klarman

Introduction
1. The Plessy period
2. The innovative period
3. The Interwar interval
4. international struggle II period: Context and circumstances
5. global battle II period: results
6. tuition Desegregation
7. Brown and the Civil Rights circulation

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Additional resources for From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality

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The majority invalidated the oaths as intended to impose punishment on Confederate sympathizers, while dissenters saw a bona fide occupational qualification. 87 Thus, in 1898, some precedent existed on both sides of the question of whether legislative motive was relevant to constitutionality. Yet the tradition of rejecting motive inquiries was preponderant, and Williams had more law behind it than a contrary ruling would have. Indeed, had it seemed probable that a discriminatory motive could invalidate otherwise constitutional legislation, southern disfranchisers probably would have been more circumspect in their public statements.

48 Berea College was more difficult for the justices than Plessy was, since the Plessy era was also the Lochner era. In 1905, Lochner v. New York invalidated a state maximum-hour law—one of the century’s most (in)famous decisions. The Lochner Court was a staunch defender of property and contract rights, yet even it distinguished between government regulation of quasi-public entities, such as common carriers, and regulation of more private enterprises. ” These justices thought that regulation of common carriers was easier to justify because of their monopoly position.

The administration of Ulysses S. Grant had sporadically used military intervention to suppress such violence. But in the fall of 1875, the president and his cabinet calculated that intervening in Mississippi, where whites had killed scores of blacks in political violence, would alienate The Plessy Era 29 northern voters, many of whom no longer supported military coercion. 71 Black voting in the South, though reduced, did not end with Reconstruction. A majority of blacks still voted in most southern states in 1880.

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