Download Functional Anatomy of the Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle: by Fernando Reinoso-Suárez PDF

By Fernando Reinoso-Suárez

Wakefulness is an important, energetic and periodic mind country, with a circadian and homeostatic rules and accurately meshed with different states into the sleep-wakefulness cycle. This monograph first overviews the old historical past and present knowing of the neuronal platforms producing and/or retaining a few of the stages of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. A key mobile correlate of wakefulness is a sustained mode of excessive task and plasticity within the heavily intertwined circuits of the cortex and thalamus, the “thalamo-cerebral cortex unity”. the second one a part of the monograph offers an in-depth overview of contemporary advances at the anatomy, body structure and neurochemistry of the neuronal teams recognized to force the “thalamo-cerebral cortex solidarity” into their wakefulness mode, and to maintain them in such mode. curiously, those neuronal teams can be found within the brainstem, hypothalamus or basal forebrain; jointly, they're often called the “ascending reticular activating system”. Neurotransmitter-specific pathways coming up from those neuronal teams aim the thalamus and cortex. many of the neurotransmitters have interaction on postsynaptic cortical or thalamic cells to fine-tune their excitability and plasticity, exerting strong affects at the perceptual and cognitive procedures in addition to attentional, emotional, motivational, behavioral and arousal states. In flip, corticofugal axons achieve the neuronal teams of the “ascending reticular activating system”, and therefore the wakeful “thalamo-cerebral cortex solidarity” is in place to modulate their activity

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Also, in the first description in the literature of brainstem projections to the cerebral cortex using retrograde transport techniques, we demonstrated that in the cat the caudal brainstem fibers reaching the cerebral cortex originate in the oral pontine tegmentum, most numerously from the ipsilateral locus coeruleus complex, the parabrachial nuclei, and the raphe nuclei (centralis superior and raphe dorsalis); fibers originate less intensely from the oral pontine reticular nucleus and the contralateral corresponding structures since only a few neurons were observed in the latter (Fig.

The thalamus in mammals is a sizeable and complex structure constituted by a large number of nuclei. We may schematize these nuclei as: midline, medial, intralaminar, lateral, ventral, and reticular (Fig. 33). Most of the nuclei, specially the midline, dorsal medial, intralaminar, and reticular thalamic nuclei, receive ample afferents from the brainstem and hypothalamic and basal forebrain structures related with the control of the SWC [Figs. 35]. The cerebral cortex is not only the principal source of thalamic afferents but also the principal efferent target of thalamic nuclei with the exception of the projections to the basal ganglia from the “intralaminar” and Thalamus 47 Fig.

However, the decerebrate cats show, as we have mentioned before, true behavioral and polygraphic REM sleep. These results demonstrate that the structures necessary for the organization of REM sleep are situated in the pontine and medullary brainstem and that important waking formations are also located in the oral pontine tegmentum. The pons and medulla oblongata tegmentum hold other hypnogenic structures that are not able to organize a true NREM sleep by themselves, although they do contribute to the appearance of this SWC phase in the intact animal.

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