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By Zucker R.D., Biblarz O.

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8 Identification of work quantities. 38) 38 CONTROL VOLUME ANALYSIS—PART I This is called flow work or displacement work. 39) This represents work done by the system (positive) to force fluid out of the control volume and represents work done on the system (negative) to force fluid into the control volume. Thus the total work δWs δW = + dt dt mpv ˙ We may now rewrite our energy equation in a more useful form which is applicable to one-dimensional flow. 40) cv If we consider steady flow, the term involving the partial derivative with respect to time is zero.

This leads to special relations that can be used not only for liquids but under certain conditions are excellent approximations for gases. At the close of the chapter we complete our basic set of equations by transforming Newton’s second law for use in the analysis of control volumes. This is done for both finite and differential volume elements. 2 OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter successfully, you should be able to: 1. Explain how entropy changes can be divided into two categories. Define and interpret each part.

For perfect gases, at what temperature do we arbitrarily assign u = 0 and h = 0? 32. State any expression for the entropy change between two arbitrary points which is valid for a perfect gas. 33. If a perfect gas undergoes an isentropic process, what equation relates the pressure to the volume? Temperature to the volume? Temperature to the pressure? 34. Consider the general polytropic process (pv n = const) for a perfect gas. 34, label each process line with the correct value of n and identify which fluid property is held constant.

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