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Extra resources for Gale Encyclopedia of American Law, Third Edition, Volume 12: Milestones in the Law: Cases in the Law - Lawrence to Roe

Example text

The second inquiry is whether equality was denied because of a person’s membership in a protected class of sex, race, color, creed, or national origin. Id. 06’s prohibitions, so that discussion need not be repeated here. 06 is prohibited by the ERA. Id. Sex-based discrimination is allowed to co-exist with the ERA only when the proponent of the discrimination can prove there is no other manner to protect the state’s compelling interest. Id. Surprisingly, counsel for the State conceded at oral argument that he could not “even see how he could begin to frame an argument that there was a compelling State interest,” much less demonstrate that interest for this Court.

Despite this acknowledgment of the rule, the majority prefers here, as elsewhere in the opinion, to impose a burden of proof not required in an inquiry based on gender discrimination. The Supreme Court has consistently subjected gender-based classifications to heightened scrutiny in recognition of the real danger that government policies that professedly are based on reasonable considerations in fact may be reflective of archaic and overbroad generalizations. S. 127, 135, 128 L. Ed. 2d 89, 114 S.

Thus, while the State, in the exercise of its police powers, may enact legislation reasonably tending to promote the health, comfort or welfare of the public, the extent of this power is limited and must be exercised in conformance with the limitations prescribed by the constitution. Faulk v. 2d 891, 891–95 (Tex. Civ. —El Paso 1941, no writ); see also Villarreal v. State, 935 S. 2d 134, 139 (Tex. Crim. App. ”). 06, as a non-gender neutral 14 Article I, § 29 excepts everything in the bill of rights out of the general powers of government and states such rights included therein are to remain inviolate, thus placing these rights beyond the power of the state government to usurp.

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