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By K.H.J. Buschow

Quantity 17 of the guide at the homes of Magnetic fabrics, because the previous volumes, has a twin function. As a textbook it's meant to be of counsel to those that desire to be brought to a given subject within the box of magnetism with out the necessity to learn the titanic quantity of literature released. As a piece of reference it's meant for scientists energetic in magnetism study. To this twin objective, quantity 17 of the instruction manual consists of topical overview articles written by way of best experts. In every one of those articles an intensive description is given in graphical in addition to in tabular shape, a lot emphasis being put on the dialogue of the experimental fabric within the framework of physics, chemistry and fabric technological know-how. It offers the readership with novel tendencies and achievements in magnetism. *composed of topical evaluation articles written by means of major professionals *intended to be of counsel to those that desire to be brought to a given subject within the box of magnetism *as a piece of reference it really is meant for scientists lively in magnetism study *provide the readership with novel traits and achievements in magnetism

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Extra resources for Handbook of Magnetic Materials, Volume 17

Example text

The Ohmic behavior as derived in Eqs. (3)–(5) is only valid for small applied bias voltage, and should be reconsidered for higher voltages where the I (V ) curve becomes essentially non-linear. For symmetric tunnel junctions with identical electrodes, Simmons (1963) has analytically calculated the tunneling current using the WKB approximation (see Eq. (2)) which is valid for thick and high barriers: I (V ) = αA eV φ– 2 t 2 – exp –βt φ – αA eV φ+ 2 t 2 eV 2 exp –βt φ + eV , 2 (12) with, α = e/(2πh), β = 4π 2m∗e /h (m∗e the effective electron mass in the barrier conduction band), V the applied voltage, t the barrier thickness, A the barrier area, t and φ the average barrier height above the Fermi level 0 [V (x) – EF ] dx /t.

3). A clear demonstration of the ambiguities involved in extracting barrier parameters is facilitated by internal photoemission studies, from which the barrier height in thin-film tunneling structures can be adequately extracted. , Kadlec and Gundlach (1976), Nelson and Anderson (1966), and Crowell et al. (1962). Conceptually, the technique is rather straightforward, see Fig. 10b. One shines monochromatic light onto a junction structure, and measures the resulting photocurrent. The incident photons will excite electrons in the electrodes, gaining an amount of energy equal to the photon energy.

In (c) exchange biasing is combined with antiferromagnetic coupling across a metallic spacer to further improve the field range of antiparallel orientation, together with the magnetic and thermal stability. Note that the schematic behavior of M is shown over a much wider field range as compared to (a) and (b), to fully show the decoupling of the artificial antiferromagnet governed by the antiferromagnetic coupling strength JAF . range HC1 < H < HC2 with HC1,2 the coercivities of the soft and hard magnetic layer, respectively (Fig.

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