Download High Magnetic Fields by Noboru Miura (Editor) Fritz Herlach (Editor) PDF

By Noboru Miura (Editor) Fritz Herlach (Editor)

This three-volume e-book presents a finished evaluate of experiments in very powerful magnetic fields that may simply be generated with very particular magnets. the 1st quantity is fullyyt dedicated to the know-how of laboratory magnets: everlasting, superconducting, high-power water-cooled and hybrid; pulsed magnets, either nondestructive and damaging (megagauss fields). Volumes 2 and three comprise experiences of the various components of study the place robust magnetic fields are a necessary study software. those volumes deal basically with solid-state physics; different study parts lined are organic platforms, chemistry, atomic and molecular physics, nuclear resonance, plasma physics and astrophysics (including QED).

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In shear (S) waves, the particles oscillate perpendicular to the wave’s direction. Solid rock can transmit both types, but molten rock can transmit only the P wave, because two sliding layers can couple only weakly. Both types of waves are reflected and refracted as they pass between layers of different temperature and composition. 22 THE MAGNETIC UNIVERSE Richard D. Oldham, an Irish geologist, was the first to identify such waves. In 1906 he noticed a “shadow zone” on the hemisphere opposite an earthquake, in which P waves were excluded.

But I digress. Let’s return to the serious search for an understanding of the cycle. MODELS OF THE SOLAR CYCLE We saw in chapter 2 how theorists such as Edward Bullard, Walter Elsasser, and Eugene Parker developed the outlines of a theory for the maintenance of the Earth’s magnetic field. They proposed that the field is generated by a selfexcited dynamo in the Earth’s liquid metal core. The rotation of the electrically conducting core through an existing poloidal field would generate a toroidal field.

It was devastating. Progress in explaining the Earth’s field stalled until geophysicists learned much more about the interior of the Earth. A S M AT T E R I N G O F S E I S M O L O G Y Sir Isaac Newton made the first important discovery about the Earth’s interior. Using his studies of the force of gravity, he was able to calculate that the average density of the Earth is more than twice that of the rocks at the surface. That meant that the Earth has a dense core. Seismologists, who study the waves that earthquakes produce, eventually confirmed the existence of a core and gave us good estimates of its size and composition.

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