Download Historical Dictionary of Iraq by Beth Dougherty PDF

By Beth Dougherty

Ancient Dictionary of Iraq starts off with the earliest civilizations and covers the classes that undefined, starting from the heritage of historic Mesopotamia to the Abbasid Empire to present-day Iraq. incorporated are a old review; a rustic profile; a evaluate of the financial system, oil, fauna, and political associations; insurance of the Iran-Iraq battle, the Kuwait invasion, the second one Gulf struggle, and different conflicts. the most important ethnic teams, akin to the Kurds, Turkumans, and Assyrians; Islam and Muslim sects, Christianity and Christian sects, in addition to different non secular teams; are profiled. Dictionary entries additionally spotlight the most political, non secular, and ideological events, teams, and enterprises; significant historic personalities; languages; literature; and cultural components. A extensive variety of themes, either historic and glossy, are handled through the advent and the dictionary, and a complete bibliography enhances this huge old reference. the final objective of this dictionary is to hide a couple of different topics starting from the background of old Mesopotamia to the `Abbasid Empire to present-day Iraq . It encompasses a historic review, a rustic profile, the financial system, oil, fauna, political establishment, the Iran-`Iraq battle, the Kuwait invasion, and the second one Gulf conflict and different conflicts. It additionally covers the most important ethnic teams akin to the Kurds, the Turkumans and the Assyrians, Islam and Muslim sects, Christianity and Christian sects, in addition to different non secular teams. The dictionary highlights the most political, spiritual, and ideological events, teams, and organisations; significant ancient personalities; languages; literature; tradition; a entire bibliography; and different themes. now we have additionally handled a extensive variety of issues either historic and sleek.

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The term ‘Iraq remains somewhat shrouded in historical mist. References to it are made in pre-Islamic Arab history and poetry. ” The Republican regime established in 1958 used the sun as its symbol, in part because of the sun’s connection with this ancient name. ” The great eighth-century Arab historian al-Farahidi said that ‘Iraq was given this name because it lay on the banks of the twin rivers that extended to the sea. In the Middle Ages the term al-’Iraq al-Arabi was used to refer to the southern delta area of Mesopotamia.

The rivalry between al-Rashid’s two sons, al-Amin and al-Mamun, has itself often been simplistically portrayed as an ethnic conflict between the Arab and the Persian camps because Al-Amin’s mother was Arab while al-Mamun’s mother was Persian. After his rise to power as caliph in 833, al-Mutasim suppressed the Persian revolts and continued al-Mamun’s previous battles against the Byzantines. He moved the capital to Samarra and, most notably, began the fateful policy of relying on Turkish slaves, or mamluks, to form the caliphs’ guards.

Other wild animals native to ‘Iraq include jackals, hyenas, gazelles, snakes, bats, lizards, and otters. The main domesticated animals raised in ‘Iraq are camels, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, donkeys, mules, and Arabian horses. Migratory birds as well as ibis, herons, hubaras, vultures, and buzzards live in various parts of ‘Iraq. A variety of fresh water fish can be found, including carp, barbus, catfish, eels, and shad. The lower reaches of the rivers also have species that migrate from the Gulf to spawn or feed, including anchovies, garfish, gobies, sharks, stingrays, and sea bream.

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