By J.E. Peterson
Короле́вство Сау́довская Ара́вия — крупнейшее государство на Аравийском полуострове. Зарождение Саудовского государства началось в 1744 в центральном регионе Аравийского полуострова. В 1817 османский Султан отправил на Аравийский полуостров войска под командованием Мухаммеда Али-паши, которые разгромили относительно слабую армию Имама Абдаллы. Таким образом, Первое Саудовское государство просуществовало seventy three года.Всего через 7 лет (в 1824) было основано Второе Саудовское государство со столицей в Эр-Рияде. Это государство просуществовало sixty seven лет и было уничтожено давними врагами Саудов — династией Рашиди. В 1902 22-летний Абдель Азиз из семьи Саудов захватил Эр-Рияд, расправившись с губернатором из семьи Рашиди.В 1920, используя поддержку англичан, Абдель Азиз окончательно разбил Рашиди. В 1926 Абдель Азиз аль-Сауд был объявлен королем Хиджаза. Через несколько лет он захватил практически весь Аравийский полуостров,1932 Неджд и Хиджаз были объединены в одно государство, названное Саудовской Аравией. Сам же Абдель Азиз стал королем Саудовской Аравии.
Этот словарь-справочник включает обзорная статья,индекс,много карт,статистические,хронологические и генеалогические таблицы, библиография и более 2 тыс. словарние статьи.
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Extra resources for Historical dictionary of Saudi Arabia
Subsequent explosions take place on 22 November and 15 December, all with British victims. Four Europeans confess on Saudi television on 4 February 200 1to the attacks, in what the Saudi government claims is a dispute over illegal alcohol smuggling in the kingdom. Questions regarding their guilt and punishment continue into 2002 2000 18 December: Saudi government announces a balanced budget for 200 1, following a surplus for 2000, the first budget surplus in 19 years 2001 5 March: The second fatal stampede in three years during the annual hajj (pilgrimage) to Makkah kills 35 pilgrims 2001 17 April: Iran and Saudi Arabia sign a security pact intended to combat organized crime, terrorism, drug trafficking, and illegal immigration 2001 14 May: The Minisw ofHealth reports that an outbreak ofRift Valley fever in southern Saudi Arabia has killed 124people since September 2000; dozens more die in adjoining regions of Yemen 2001 24 May: The membership ofthe Majlis al-Shura (ConsultativeCouncil) is expanded to 120 in preparation for its third four-year session; of these, 62 members are new 2001 8 September: Prince Turki al-Faysal, Director of General Intelligence since 1968, is replaced by his uncle, Prince Nawwaf bin 'Abd al-'Aziz 2001 11 September: Fifteen Saudis are among the 19 hijackers of four American domestic airliners, which are then used to destroy the World Trade Center in New York and damage the Pentagon in Washington; the Saudi government condemns the attacks and their presumed mastermind, Saudi-born dissident Usamah bin Ladin; US-Saudi relations are strained by American media attacks on the kingdom and perceived Saudi slowness to join US President George W.
Although the Lranian Revolution of 1979 produced a barrage ofverbal assaults on the A1 Sa'ud, the direct impact was limited to antigovernment demonstrations among the Shi'ah population of the Eastern Province in 1979 and 1980. But as Baghdad's initial successes in the Iran-Iraq War (1 980-1 988) were checkmated and reversed, the possibility of a direct threat from Iran grew. In 198 1, Saudi Arabia and its smaller neighbors in the Gulf (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman) banded together in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).
Most ofthe country is desert, including barren mountains and gravel plains as well as sand dunes. This means that herding and nomadism have provided the principal livelihood of much of the population, although the country is dotted with cultivated oases and the highlands ofthe southwest support intensive agriculture. The climate is generally very hot in summer, as well as humid along the coasts. Winters are mild, even cold in the interior. The capital is Riyadh, which also constitutes one of the main cities, along 2 Introduction with Jiddah, Makkah, al-Madinah in the west, and the Dhahranlal-Darnmaml al-Khubar conurbation on the east coast.