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By Stanford J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw

Reform, Revolution and Republic: the increase of contemporary Turkey, 1808-1975 is the second one e-book of the two-volume heritage of the Ottoman Empire and smooth Turkey. It discusses the modernization of the Ottoman Empire throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, the unfold of nationalism between its topic peoples, and the progressive adjustments in Ottoman associations and society that ended in the Empire's death and the increase of the democratic Republic of Turkey. in line with large examine within the Ottoman records in addition to Western assets, this quantity analyzes the exterior pressures, reform measures, institutional adjustments, and highbrow pursuits that affected the heterogeneous Ottoman society through the Empire's final century. It concludes with an research of latest Turkey's constitutional and political buildings and central household and international difficulties.

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Extra resources for History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 2, Reform, Revolution, and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey 1808-1975

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The abortive move had no effect in Greece, but it did stimulate a national movement in the Principalities that was to lead ultimately to an end of Phanariote domination and the establishment of Rumanian union and independence. In the meantime, the Philiki Hetairia had been organizing cells in Greece with much more success and with some help from the Orthodox millet leaders, who hoped to use it as a lever against the Phanariotes. Prior to 1820 their main obstacle had been Ali Pa§a of Janina, the old notable who had been extending his power in 18 The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808-1975 Albania southward into mainland Greece and even the Morea.

12 A full-scale conflict followed. The Janissaries obtained the support of the artisans and the city mob and mounted a general assault on the palace from the direction of Ay a Sofya, and cut off its water supply (November 16, 1808). The new Segbans responded with sorties outside the walls, but they were not yet fully organized and trained, and against the numerical superiority of the attackers they could not break out of the circle. The navy ships in the Golden Horn began bombarding the Janissary barracks as well as their lines around the palace, but this started huge fires that destroyed large sections of the Sultan Ahmet, Aya Sofya, and Divan Yolu quarters, with thousands of innocent civilians being killed.

The sultan recognized Milos, as hereditary prince of Serbia and agreed to remove all Ottoman garrisons and feudal soldiers from the country, leaving them only in certain forts along the frontier. The Serbs were to pay their taxes in the form of an annual bulk tribute rather than through direct collection by Ottoman officials. Suppression of the Anatolian Notables In the meantime, Hursjt Ahmet Pa§a suppressed the Anatolian notables by the same combination of trickery and force that had worked so well in the Balkans.

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