By Darrell Duffie
Broker banks--that is, huge banks that deal in securities and derivatives, akin to J. P. Morgan and Goldman Sachs--are of a dimension and complexity that sharply distinguish them from general advertisement banks. after they fail, as we observed within the international monetary problem, they pose major dangers to our economy and the area economic system. "How mammoth Banks Fail and What to Do approximately It" examines how those banks cave in and the way we will be able to hinder the necessity to bail them out. In sharp, medical element, Darrell Duffie walks readers step by step during the mechanics of large-bank disasters. He identifies the place the cracks first seem while a broker financial institution is weakened by way of critical buying and selling losses, and demonstrates how the bank's relationships with its clients and company companions unexpectedly swap while its solvency is threatened. As others search to lessen their publicity to the broker financial institution, the financial institution is pressured to sign its energy by utilizing up its slender inventory of last liquid capital. Duffie exhibits how the major mechanisms in a broker bank's collapse--such as Lehman Brothers' failure in 2008--derive from exact institutional frameworks and rules that impact the flight of momentary secured collectors, hedge-fund consumers, derivatives counterparties, and so much devastatingly, the lack of clearing and cost services."How huge Banks Fail and What to Do approximately It" finds why modern regulatory and institutional frameworks for mitigating large-bank disasters do not deal with the unique hazards to our economy which are posed by way of broker banks, and descriptions the advancements in rules and industry associations which are had to handle those systemic hazards.
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Additional info for How Big Banks Fail and What to Do About It
P. 8 Dealer banks often have large asset-management divisions that cater to the investment needs of institutional and wealthy individual clients. The services provided include custody of securities, cash management, brokerage, and investment in alternative asset-management vehicles, such as hedge funds and private-equity partnerships, which are typically managed by the same bank. Such an “internal hedge fund” may oﬀer contractual terms similar to those of external stand-alone hedge funds, and in addition can wrap the limited partner’s position within the scope of general asset-management services.
At the end of 2009, the world’s largest manager of hedge funds was J. P. 5 billion in hedge fund assets under management, according to Williamson (2010). In addition to the beneﬁt of “one-stop shopping,” a limited partner in an internal hedge fund or private equity partnership may perceive that a large bank is more stable than a stand-alone hedge fund, and that the bank might voluntarily support an internal hedge fund ﬁnancially at a time of need. 9 In August of 2007, at a time of extreme market stress and losses to some of its internal hedge funds, Goldman Sachs injected10 a signiﬁcant amount of capital into one of them, the Global Equity Opportunities Fund.
As opposed to assets held in positive net supply, such as equities, the net total supply of any type of derivative is zero. Thus, the net total market value of all derivatives contracts is zero, as a mere accounting identity. For example, the call option in our simple example may have a substantial market value to the buyer, say $10 million. The seller in that case has a market value that is negative by the same amount, $10 million dollars. As contingencies are realized over time, derivatives transfer wealth from counterparty to counterparty, but do not directly add to or subtract from the total stock of wealth.