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By Alan Cassels

Starting with the French Revolution's injection of ideology into interstate politics, Cassels addresses preoccupations with the cave in of communism and the resurgence of non secular fundamentalism in global politics. Examines the roots of the dichotomy within the C20th among conventional egotistical Realpolitik and the statement that overseas coverage may still leisure on a selected philosophy and set of values. strikes from Machiavellian culture to social Darwinism, communism and imperialism, Hitler's goals and the character of ideology through the chilly struggle. Makes obtainable a not easy and intriguing topic.

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Liberty was suppressed by the secret police and censorship, equality yielded to a new nobility of the légion d’honneur, and the fraternity to be fulfilled by an integrated Europe was, in fact, French political, economic and cultural imperialism. 56 Napoleon’s drive for rationalized and administrative order has been called the ‘Indian summer of enlightened despotism’. 57 But crucially he sought to extend eighteenth-century reform from the single nation to a universal domain. In this way, prosaic bureaucratic modernization became something of a transcendental vision, even an ideology in a rough sense.

Equally remarkable were achievements on the home front. Given extensive powers of requisition by the Committee of Public Safety, a sort of war cabinet, commissioners for armaments and food transformed private concerns into virtual state enterprises. By 1794, it has been 27 THE BIRTH OF IDEOLOGY estimated, 3,000 workers were producing 700 guns a day, the smelting of church bells supplying much raw material; 6,000 workshops were manufacturing gunpowder, much of it with saltpetre scraped off damp cellar walls; in Paris alone 258 open-air forges were in operation in such areas as the Invalides, Tuileries and Luxembourg gardens; the grounds of the Tuileries were planted with potatoes.

Two years later, Austria took on Napoleon again and suffered another catastrophic defeat at Wagram. This string of glittering triumphs enabled Napoleon to tighten and enforce more widely the so-called Continental System, his one weapon against the sole undefeated enemy, Britain. 35 THE BIRTH OF IDEOLOGY Protected by its sea power as it was, that nation might still, he thought, be brought to heel by stifling its trade with the Continent. In the meantime, the continental powers’ collective humiliation was at last forcing them to accept the lesson that, in order to defeat France, it was necessary to imitate what the revolution and Napoleon had wrought in France itself.

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