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By Thomas G. West

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Additional info for In the Mind's Eye: Visual Thinkers, Gifted People With Learning Difficulties, Computer Images, and the Ironies of Creativity

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A longer-term study of intentional versus incidental learning of material was conducted by Dawley and Dawley (1974); it was particularly noteworthy for the testing of comprehension of textbook material that required learning of complex material over a prolonged period rather than the simple recall of factual details. In this study, beginning typists copied 20 passages on economic concepts, each requiring 5 minutes to type, over a 5-week period. As in the Marton and Sandqvist study, one group of subjects was instructed to concentrate on the meaning of the source material as they typed, while the other group was given no special instructions regarding comprehension.

Of Long's experiments show an increase in the interkeystroke intervals with increases in feedback delay, but the amount of the increase in the interkeystroke intervals is not as great as the delay times. Thus, Long proposes a modified system, following a suggestion of Licklider (1960), in which an open-loop mode is adopted under normal feedback conditions but is switched to a closed-loop system under delayed feedback, at least initially. When related experiments on delayed feedback were conducted with skilled typists and text material, Long found that the decrement in performance under the delayed conditions was eliminated after about 2,000 keystrokes, or about 8 minutes.

Interactive human communication. Scientific American, 1975,232(3), 36-42. Chapanis, A. Interactive communication: Some findings from laboratory experiments. 1-9. , Ochsman, R. , Parrish, R. , & Weeks, G. D. Studies in interactive communication: I. The effect of four communication modes on the behavior of teams during cooperative problem-solving. Human Factors, 1972, 14,487-509. , & Overbey, C. M Studies in interactive communication: III. Effects of similar and dissimilar communication channels and two interchange options on team problem solving.

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