By Suman Bery, Barry P. Bosworth, Arvind Panagariya
A brand new annual book devoted to study at the modern Indian economic system. It offers a discussion board for addressing the scope, pace, and desirability of monetary reforms inside of India and their primary affects at the country's social and fiscal welfare.
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Extra info for India Policy Forum 2004
FDI up to 100 percent ownership is permitted in airports, although FDI above 74 percent requires prior approval. Foreign equity up to 40 percent and investment by nonresident Indians up to 100 percent is permitted in domestic air transport services. Only railways remain off limits to private entry. Since 1991, several attempts have been made to bring private sector investment, including FDI, into the power sector, but without perceptible success. The most recent attempt is the Electricity Act of 2003, which replaces the three existing laws on electric power dated 1910, 1948, and 1998.
Full foreign ownership under the automatic route is permitted in projects for construction and maintenance of roads, highways, vehicular bridges, toll roads, vehicular tunnels, ports, and harbors. In projects for construction and maintenance of ports and harbors, automatic approval for foreign equity up to 100 percent is available. In projects providing support services to water transport, such as the operation and maintenance of piers and loading and the discharging of vehicles, no approval is required for foreign Arvind Panagariya 13 equity up to 51 percent.
But until the July 1991 reforms, exports of 439 items were still subject to controls, including (in declining order of severity) prohibition (185 items), licensing (55 items), quantitative ceilings (38 items), canalization (49 items), and prespecified terms and conditions (112 items). The March 1992 Export-Import Policy reduced the number of items subject to controls to 296, with prohibited items reduced to 16. The process continued thereafter, so that today export prohibitions apply to only a small number of items on health, environmental, or moral grounds, and export restrictions 17.