By United Nations University
Environmental administration laws have frequently confronted competition on sensible and ideological grounds. because the Eighties there was a flow in the direction of liberalization, coupled with the continuing failure of the marketplace to guard the surroundings as a public stable. The members to this e-book research a couple of political and business tendencies and responses to those demanding situations. an invaluable set of case experiences appraise environmental guidelines and finished statements on environmental safety and sustainable improvement through various international locations within the North and the South.
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Extra resources for Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: Developing Workable Solutions
Environmental innovation, cleaner production and ﬁrm behaviour A waste generator has three options for dealing with waste. , untreated release into the environment through efﬂuent discharge, emission release and/or dumping as solid waste. A second option is to use end-of-pipe approaches to treat the waste prior to release into the environment, thereby bringing hazardous constituents to within legally acceptable levels through dilution, neutralization, solidiﬁcation or incineration. Any ‘‘innocuous’’ waste can then be landﬁlled.
1, all categories of cleaner production involve varying degrees of environmental innovation, either developed internally or acquired from outside the ﬁrm. The innovations vary in complexity and cost. What makes a ﬁrm choose one option over the others? Existing literature suggests three somewhat overlapping explanations: self interest (proﬁt maximization), preferences of key actors and social norms. 1 Categories and examples of cleaner production innovations Good Housekeeping. On-time purchasing of raw materials, proper storage, labelling and handling of materials, eliminating leakages and spills in unit operations, reduced packaging and timely shipment of products.
Operation that sells exclusively for the local market, the company appears to seek ISO 14001 certiﬁcation simply in a spirit of competition with its sister facilities. ‘‘We competed with our Japanese sister facility and we beat them to ISO 9002 certiﬁcation’’ (Shu, H. , Manager, interview, 21 July 1999). Preparation for ISO 14001 certiﬁcation included the implementation of additional cleaner production changes. The facility donates its food waste (100kg/day) to a pig farm and sells its paper packaging materials (1 ton/month) to a recycler.